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Topics - Tigslarlowducken

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1
Representative Proposals / Amendment X: Justice Appointment Time Frame
« on: March 04, 2022, 01:33:44 pm »
Amendment X: Justice Appointment Time Frame
Purpose: To set a time frame for the appointment of new Justices
Author: Tigslarlowducken, Renegalle

Existing Clause: Article G, Clause 6
6. Should a vacancy arise in the Court or should a proposed nominee be rejected by the citizens, the Justices shall collectively decide upon and nominate a replacement within one week. The Chief Justice shall make a public announcement regarding this nomination, and it shall be brought by the Speaker to the citizens for a vote. A simple majority in favor of the nomination, within four days, shall be required to confirm the nominee.

New Clause: Article G, Clause 6
6. Should a vacancy arise in the Court or should a proposed nominee be rejected by the citizens, the Justices shall collectively decide upon and nominate a replacement within one week. The Chief Justice shall make a public announcement regarding this nomination, and it shall be brought by the Speaker within three days of the announcement for a vote by the citizens lasting four days. A simple majority in favor of the nomination, within four days, shall be required to confirm the nominee.

2
Courtroom / How to File Court Paperwork
« on: March 03, 2022, 10:51:57 am »
How to File Court Paperwork
Current as of 03 Mar, 2022

NOTE: This document does not constitute legal advice.

1) Filing Charges
To bring charges against a citizen, you must state the name of the individual and the charges brought against them. The relevant law should be cited in your request.

Example:
Under [Law or section of Constitution], I hereby charge [citizen] with the crime of [crime].

Relevant law:
[Excerpt from relevant legal document]

2) Requests for Review
Requests for Review may be made by any citizen. If you believe a law is unconstitutional or contradicts another law, make sure to include all relevant law in your request. The Chief Justice may phrase their legal reviews as "Orders for Review."

Example:
I believe [law, policy, or other legal item] may be unconstitutional due to its contradiction of [Constitutional clause]
- OR -
I believe [law, policy, or other legal item] may contradict [law, policy, or other legal item]. [Quote the relevant sections of both laws]

3) Freedom of Information Requests
As of 01 Mar, 2022, FoIA requests should be made using the following format:
Name: [Name of the Nation Requesting]
Contact Information: [Method of contact, such as Discord tag or nation link]
Requested Information: [A detailed description of the information requested - for example, an individual might request all information on a given subject, a summary thereof, or a specific document held by a Government Authority.]
Justification: [Detailed statement as to why this information should be released.

3
Representative Proposals / Amendment X: Legal Reform, Ver. 2
« on: February 11, 2022, 01:42:32 pm »
Amendment X: Legal Reform, Ver. 2
Purpose: To improve the definitions of crimes and modify certain punishments
Author(s): Tigslarlowducken

Existing Article:
Article I: Illegal Activities

1. Treason

1.1. Attempting to or successfully undermining the legitimate government of the Union or its allies.
1.2. Attempting to or successfully harming the people of the Union or the people of the Union's allies.
1.3. Attempting to or successfully raiding or illegally occupying a region of the Union of Force or its allies.

2. Espionage

2.1. Attempting to or successfully accessing sensitive information without prior approval from the Founder or Prime Minister.
2.2. Attempting to or successfully sharing sensitive information without prior approval from the Founder or Prime Minister.

3. Conspiracy

3.1. Collaborating with one or more other citizens to commit any of the activities in this Article.
3.2. Collaborating with one or more foreign nationals to commit any of the activities in this Article.
3.3. Collaborating with a mix of citizens and foreign nationals to commit any of the activities in this Article.

4. Voting Fraud

4.1. Attempting to or successfully undermining the validity of an election through the creation of multiple accounts.
4.2. Attempting to or successfully undermining the validity of an election, referendum, or vote of any other kind by bringing in nations to vote for one or more specific candidates or ideas.
4.3. Attempting to or successfully undermining the validity of an election by means of something other than that mentioned in §I.4.1 and §I.4.2.

5. Perjury

5.1. Lying or willfully deceiving a member of the Court or Jury during a trial or through the providing of fake or manipulated evidence.

6. Nonfeasance and Malfeasance

6.1. Nonfeasance shall be defined as a failure to perform one's responsibilities in any government office.
6.2. Malfeasance shall be defined as violating the Constitution or any other binding law in a manner other than specified in the preceding clauses.

New Article:
Article I: Illegal Activities

1. Treason

1.1. Attempting to or successfully undermining the legitimate government of the Union or its allies.
1.2. Attempting to or successfully harming the people of the Union or the people of the Union's allies.
1.3. Attempting to or successfully raiding or illegally occupying a region of the Union of Force or its allies.

2. Espionage

2.1. Attempting to or successfully accessing and/or sharing sensitive information without prior approval from the Founder or Prime Minister unless it can be proven that the public interest in disclosure of the information outweighs the public interest in nondisclosure.
2.2. Attempting to or successfully sharing sensitive information without prior approval from the Founder or Prime Minister.

3. Conspiracy

3.1. Collaborating with one or more other citizens to commit any of the activities in this Article.
3.2. Collaborating with one or more foreign nationals to commit any of the activities in this Article.
3.3. Collaborating with a mix of citizens and foreign nationals to commit any of the activities in this Article.
3.3. Attempting to coerce one or more citizens to commit any of the activities in this Article.
3.4. Attempting to coerce one or more foreign nationals to commit any of the activities in this Article.


4. Voting Fraud

4.1. Attempting to or successfully undermining the validity of an election or referendum through the creation of multiple accounts.
4.2. Attempting to or successfully undermining the validity of an election, referendum, or vote of any other kind by bringing in nations to vote for one or more specific candidates or ideas.
4.3. Attempting to or successfully undermining the validity of an election by means of something other than that mentioned in §I.4.1 and §I.4.2.[/s]
4.2. Examples of voter fraud include:
4.2.1. Attempting to or successfully undermining the validity of an election, referendum, or vote of any other kind through the creation of multiple accounts.
4.2.2. Attempting to or successfully undermining the validity of an election, referendum, or vote of any other kind by bringing in nations to vote for one or more specific candidates or ideas.


5. Perjury

5.1. Lying or willfully deceiving a member of the Court or Jury during a trial or through the providing of fake or manipulated evidence. The willful submission of false evidence or testimony under oath or affirmation, before the High Court, upon or regarding an item or subject material to a legal inquiry.

6. Nonfeasance and Malfeasance

6.1. Nonfeasance shall be defined as a failure to perform one's responsibilities in any government office.
6.2. Malfeasance shall be defined as violating the Constitution or any other binding law in a manner other than specified in the preceding clauses.

Existing Article:
Article J: Punishments

1. The crimes of treason and espionage may be punished with:

1.1. Removal of citizenship for a length of time determined by the Court.
1.2. Temporary removal of the ability to vote; for a maximum of 2 years.
1.3. Temporary removal of the right to hold or run for public office; for a maximum of 2 years.

2. The crimes of voting fraud and malfeasance may be punished with:

2.1. Temporary removal of the ability to vote; for a maximum of 1 year.
2.2. Temporary removal of the right to hold or run for public office; for a maximum of 2 years.

3. The crime of nonfeasance may be punished with:

3.1. Temporary removal of the right to hold or run for public office; for a maximum of 6 months.

4. The crimes of perjury and conspiracy to commit perjury may be punished with:

4.1. Temporary removal of the ability to participate as a witness or provider of evidence in any trial; for a maximum of 1 year.
4.2. Temporary removal of the ability to vote; for a maximum of 6 months.

5. The crime of conspiracy to commit treason or espionage may be punished with:

5.1. Removal of citizenship for a length of time determined by the Court.
5.2. Temporary removal of the ability to vote; for a maximum of 1 year.
5.3. Temporary removal of the right to hold or run for public office; for a maximum of 1 year.

6. The crime of conspiracy to commit voting fraud or malfeasance may be punished with:

6.1. Temporary removal of the ability to vote; for a maximum of 6 months.
6.2. Temporary removal of the right to hold or run for public office; for a maximum of 1 year.

7. The crime of conspiracy to commit nonfeasance may be punished with:

7.1. Temporary removal of the right to hold or run for public office; for a maximum of 3 months.

New Article:
Article J: Punishments

1. The crimes of treason and espionage may be punished with:

1.1. Removal of citizenship for a length of time determined by the Court.
1.2. Temporary removal of the ability to vote;, for a maximum of two (2) years.
1.3. Temporary removal of the right to hold or run for public office;, for a maximum of two (2) years.

2. The crimes of voting fraud and malfeasance may be punished with:

2.1. Temporary removal of the ability to vote;, for a maximum of one (1) year.
2.2. Temporary removal of the right to hold or run for public office;, for a maximum of six (6) months2 years.

3. The crime of nonfeasance may be punished with:

3.1. Temporary removal of the right to hold or run for public office;, for a maximum of six (6) months.

4. The crimes of perjury and conspiracy to commit perjury may be punished with:

4.1. Temporary removal of the ability to participate as a witness or provider of evidence in any trial; for a maximum of 1 year.
4.1. Temporary removal of the right to hold or run for public federal office, for a maximum of six (6) months.
4.2. Temporary removal of the ability to vote;, for a maximum of six (6) months.

5. The crime of conspiracy to commit treason or espionage may be punished with:

5.1. Removal of citizenship for a length of time determined by the Court.
5.2. Temporary removal of the ability to vote;, for a maximum of one (1) year.
5.3. Temporary removal of the right to hold or run for public office;, for a maximum of one (1) year.

6. The crime of conspiracy to commit voting fraud or malfeasance may be punished with:

6.1. Temporary removal of the ability to vote;, for a maximum of six (6) months.
6.2. Temporary removal of the right to hold or run for public office;, for a maximum of 1 year six (6) months.

7. The crime of conspiracy to commit nonfeasance may be punished with:

7.1. Temporary removal of the right to hold or run for public office;, for a maximum of three (3) months.

4
Bills / House Bill 67: The Freedom of Information Act (FoIA) (Revised V)
« on: January 08, 2022, 04:34:34 pm »
House Bill 67: The Freedom of Information Act (FoIA) (Revised V)

Author(s): Originally by Sir Salibaic and Renegalle; Revised by Tigslarlowducken and Sir Salibaic

Purpose: In order to provide the public with the right to request access to records from any governmental authority and to require those authorities to disclose any information requested under the FoIA, within reason.

Article 1: Government Authorities

1. A Government Authority shall be defined under this act as: “Any authority which has a legal mandate to govern or administrate an aspect of public life within the Union of Force.”

2. Government Authorities included in this act.

2.1. Any Federal Ministry or Executive Committee.
2.2. The House of Representatives of the Union of Force.
2.3. The High Court of the Union of Force.
2.4. The High Commission.
2.5. Any Territorial Authority.
2.6. Any Federal Governmental Programs.
2.7. Any Territorial Governmental Programs.
2.8. Any other Government Authority not mentioned herein.

Article 2: Right to a Request for Information

1. All Union citizens have the right to request information from any Government Authority as listed in this act.

Article 3: FoIA Request Process

1. In order to request access to information under FoIA, a citizen shall file a FoIA Request to the High Court.
1.1. A request must be made using the following format:

Name: [Name of the Nation Requesting]
Contact Information: [Method of contact, such as Discord tag or nation link]
Requested Information: [A detailed description of the information requested - for example, an individual might request all information on a given subject, a summary thereof, or a specific document held by a Government Authority.]
Justification: [Detailed statement as to why this information should be released.

2. After a FoIA Request has been made, the High Court shall have up to 5 days to determine whether or not the information should be released. If the Chief Justice so chooses, a hearing may be conducted in order to inform the High Court's ruling.
2.1. If the request is approved, the High Court shall notify the Government Authority/Authorities affected by the FoIA request, at which point they will have 72 hours to deliver the relevant information to the High Court, which will then deliver the document to the public. The High Court may choose to redact especially sensitive information, providing an explanation for why each passage was redacted and clearly marking where information has been redacted. Government Authorities may request that the High Court redact certain sections, but may not withhold information from the Court under penalty of perjury.
2.2. If the request is denied, the High Court shall provide an explanation as to why. Additional requests for the same information may not be made for one week.

3. In the event that a request is denied as detailed in §3.2:2.1, an appeal may be made.
3.1. The appeal shall go before an appellate tribunal comprised of the Founder, the Chief Justice, and one other High Court Justice of the Founder’s choosing.
3.2. The requested information shall be presented to the tribunal as well as the reason(s) for the denial. The tribunal will then deliberate and issue a decision as to whether the information should be made public.
3.3. If the appeal succeeds, then the information requested shall be released within 72 hours. The Founder may choose to redact especially sensitive information, providing an explanation for why each passage was redacted and clearly marking where information has been redacted.
3.4. If the appeal fails, then requests for the same information may not be made for two weeks. The appellate tribunal shall release a statement as to why the information should not be released.

Article 4: Government Logs and Updates

1. All ministers, as defined in the Constitution, shall be mandated to publish a public update on their fulfillment of duties every month.
1.1. The update must contain: what has been completed, what is currently being worked on, what remains to be done, and a summary.
1.2. Failure to perform these duties within 1 week of month passing shall be considered nonfeasance.

Article 5: FoIA Request Logs

1. The Chief Justice must keep a record of all FoIA Requests in a publicly accessible location.

Article 6: Repeal
1. House Bill 63 is repealed by this Act.

5
Freedom of Information Requests / Freedom of Information Request Rulings
« on: January 08, 2022, 04:20:18 pm »
The following list of Freedom of Information Act requests has been evaluated by the High Court.



Name: Krovx Belgium
Contact Information: Wax Krovx#7636
Request: I hereby request the activity logs of the High Commission between the dates October 10, 2021 to December 31st, 2021.
Ruling: Denied



Name: Krovx Belgium
Contact Information: Wax Krovx#7636
Request: I hereby request the activity logs of the High Court between the dates of September 13th, 2021 to December 31st, 2021.
Ruling: Denied



Name: Krovx Belgium
Contact Information: Wax Krovx#7636
Request: I hereby request the activity logs of the Government of Canterbury between the dates of June 19th, 2021 to December 31st, 2021.
Ruling: Denied



Name: Krovx Belgium
Contact Information: Wax Krovx#7636
Request: I hereby request the activity logs of The First Minister and His Excellencies Government of Heart between the dates of May 19th, 2021 to December 31st, 2021.
Ruling: Denied



Name: Krovx Belgium
Contact Information: Wax Krovx#7636
Request: I hereby request the activity logs of the Government of the Citizens Alliance of Democracy between the dates of January 1st, 2021 to December 31st, 2021.
Ruling: Denied



Name: Krovx Belgium
Contact Information: Wax Krovx#7636
Request: I hereby request any cabinet meeting notes documents of the Union Federal Cabinet produced between the dates of June 13th, 2021 to January 6th, 2022.
Ruling: Denied

6
Representative Proposals / House Bill X: The Lower Court Records Act
« on: December 25, 2021, 11:12:47 pm »
House Bill X: The Lower Court Records Act
Purpose: To ensure that the High Court is fully aware of the activities of the Lower Courts.
Author: Lord Chief Justice of The Union of Force Tigslarlowducken, with suggestions from The Honourable Representative West Kronisia

Article A: Provisions
1. State courts, also referred to as the Lower Courts, shall be obligated to maintain comprehensive records of their activities.
1.1. These records must be made available to the public within 24 hours of the initiation of any activity listed in Clause 2.
2. The activities which warrant warrant archival are:
2.1. A trial has been initiated.
2.1.1. Trial initiation records should contain a list of the individuals involved in the trial, such as the defendant, plaintiff, counsel, witnesses, presiding official, etc.
2.2. A trial has received a ruling.
2.2.1. Upon the conclusion of a trial, the trial initiation records should be updated to include all evidence and transcripts of the trial, as well as the verdict and sentencing.
2.2.2 For the protection of the jurors, jury deliberation is considered classified material but should still be stored and be made available to the High Court upon request.
2.2.3. Evidence or testimony containing personally-identifying or classified information shall be redacted from public release and considered classified material, but should still be stored and be made available to the High Court upon request.
2.3. A law has been reviewed.
2.3.1. Records from judicial review should include a majority and, if applicable, a minority/dissenting opinion.

Article B: Enforcement
1. The highest-ranking official of a Lower Court is responsible for ensuring that all records are made available to the public within 24 hours, with the exception of trial transcripts, which shall be entered by the Founder.
2. Failure to enter the relevant records within the specified time frame is punishable as nonfeasance.

7
Bills / House Bill 66: Comprehensive House Procedures Act, Ver. 2
« on: November 17, 2021, 04:15:50 pm »
House Bill 66: Comprehensive House Procedures Act, Ver. 2

Purpose: To replace several older Bills with a single more comprehensive one and to update existing House Procedures to be simpler and more efficient.

Author(s): Tigslarlowducken; previous versions by Azerubia, Lashnakia, Libertatis Regalis, Salibaic, Sumeka, and Renegalle.

Article 1: Basic Procedures

1. Proposed laws must be seconded by a House Representative before they can be debated.
2. A debate shall be held by the Speaker within 7 days. The Speaker may hold one debate to discuss multiple pieces of proposed legislation.

     2.1. If the Speaker does not start a debate within 7 days it shall be considered nonfeasance (except where a vote has been forced by petition).

3. After debate, a vote shall take place within 48 hours. If a vote on the proposed law has been forced by petition, the Speaker shall attempt to the best of their ability to ensure a debate still takes place before the mandated vote.

     3.1. If the Speaker does not initiate a vote within 48 hours it shall be considered nonfeasance.

4. Votes on bills, repeals, and resolutions shall require a simple majority to pass.

     4.1. These votes shall remain open for 2 days or until they reach a majority.

5. Bills must be presented to the Prime Minister for signature, once passed. Once signed, they shall become law.

     5.1. If the Prime Minister vetoes a bill, the House, following a 48-hour debate, can overturn this veto with a 2/3 majority vote.

Article 2: Speaker

1. The House shall elect a Speaker from amongst its members by a simple majority vote. If no such majority is achieved in the first round, runoffs, using a system of elimination, shall be held. The Speaker of the House shall be responsible for:

     1.1. Holding and scheduling debate on proposed laws and votes thereof. They shall provide and update a publicly available schedule of the House's upcoming debates, meetings, and votes.
     1.2. Correcting formatting errors and posting proposed laws on the forums before holding a vote (if not already there). If it is unclear what any section is trying to say, the Speaker must ask for clarification from the law's author(s).
     1.3. Tabulating votes and posting these results wherever the passed law is found, or in the case of a repeal, wherever the repealed law is found. This must specify the votes of each member or if they were absent from the vote.  They must also ensure that the law is moved to the appropriate section of the forums and if it affects any other laws, those laws are to be moved as well.
     1.4. Informing citizens of the passage of legislation (or repeals) on a weekly basis. If no legislation/repeals have been passed during a particular week, they shall not be required to do this.
     1.5. Informing citizens and the House of Representatives of House debates and meetings. They must also extend an invitation to citizens, by any reasonable means, to participate. No citizen may be barred from listening in on these sessions. All House Representatives must be able to provide their opinions on the matters of discussion during these sessions.
     1.6. Supervising and holding elections, as required and laid out by the Constitution.

2. A Speaker shall be elected at the beginning of a new term after the completion of a General Election. A new election for Speaker may be held during a term if the Speaker resigns or loses their position in the House and has no Deputy.

     2.1. These elections shall begin with candidacy announcements, followed by a debate, followed by a formal vote. Each such period shall last 2 days or in the case of voting, until every Representative has voted.
     2.2. If the House Speaker from the previous term is re-elected, they shall remain the incumbent until a new election for Speaker has been held. They shall hold the Speaker election. If they are not re-elected, the Founder shall hold the election for Speaker.

3. The Speaker may appoint no greater than two deputies to assist in their duties. One deputy shall be endowed with the title of "Deputy Speaker," while the other shall be referred to as "Tertiary Speaker."

5. Both the Deputy Speaker and Tertiary Speaker may perform the duties of the Speaker if the Speaker is absent for any reason or has delegated those duties to them.
     5.1. The Primary Deputy Speaker shall assume the position of Speaker if the Speaker resigns from their position or for any reason ceases to be a Representative. If the Primary Deputy Speaker declines the position of Speaker, the Tertiary Speaker shall assume the position of Speaker.

Article 3: Bill Format

1. A bill shall have the following format:

House Bill [TBD]: [title of bill]
Purpose: [the purpose the bill is trying to achieve]
Author(s): [Author(s) Name]
Article [article number]: [article name]
[clause number]. [text of clause].

Article 4: Repeals

1. Any law passed by the House may be repealed, except Constitutional Amendments, unless those Amendments have not yet been voted on by the citizens.
2. Bills may include repeals in their contents.
3. Standalone repeals shall not have any format, name, or number; they shall simply be motions which are debated and voted upon.

Article 5: Constitutional Amendments

1. An amendment shall have the following format:

Amendment [TBD]: [title of Amendment]
Purpose: [the purpose the bill is trying to achieve]
Author(s): [Author(s) Name]
[Existing Section: Name of Section] Existing Language
[New Section: Name of Section] New Language
OR
[Existing Clause(s): [Clause Number(s), including Section letter]] Existing Language
[New Clause(s): [Clause Number(s), including Section letter]] New Language

2. When an amendment is proposed, the following should be bolded:
     2.1. Any and all new material proposing to be added to the document.
3. If material is removed, it is to be struck through in the new article to indicate so.
4. After the bill has passed voting by the House, the Speaker of the House or Founder shall remove these bolded and struck out characters and properly format the amendment.

Article 6: House Resolutions

1. All House resolutions shall have the following format:

House Resolution [TBD]: [Title of resolution]
[Statement].

2. Usage of a resolution
     2.1. To commend an individual or branch of government.
     2.2. To censure an individual or branch of government.
     2.3. To introduce procedural changes that only affect the House of Representatives.

Article 7: Articles of Impeachment Format

1. Articles of impeachment shall have the following format:

House Impeachment [TBD]
Initiating Official: [Name of initiating official]
Accused: [Official the House is trying to impeach]
Relevant Positions: [Positions the official will be removed from if the impeachment is successful]
Justification: [Justification]

Article 8: Numbering

1. The Speaker of the House shall assign all new bills a number after they have been passed by the House.
1.1. In the event that bills become improperly numerated, the Speaker must rectify the numbering within one week of being notified, in writing, by any citizen that notices the issue.
2. Resolutions, Articles of Impeachment, and Constitutional Amendments shall be assigned a number after being passed by the House.

Article 9: Repeals

1. House Bill 56 is rendered null and void by this Bill.

8
Constitutional Amendments / Amendment 42: Miscellaneous Reforms Act
« on: November 13, 2021, 10:01:55 pm »
Amendment 42: Miscellaneous Reforms Act
Purpose: To prevent noncitizens from holding government office, to assign a term to temporary Justices, and to prevent any one individual from serving as the head of more than one branch of government.
Author(s): Tigslarlowducken

Existing Section: Article B: Rights of Citizenship

1. The right to freedom of speech and free expression of political views.

1.1. This right shall not allow citizens to circumvent rules put in place on any offsite venue, as long as these rules are solely for the prevention of spam, flaming, impersonation, doxxing, harassment, to comply with a platform's terms of service, or similar.

1.1.1. Doxxing is defined as publishing private or identifying information about an individual without their consent.
1.1.2. Harassment is defined as repeated or continuing contact serving no useful purpose except to create alarm, annoyance, or cause emotional distress.
1.1.3. Impersonation is defined as deliberately attempting to mislead people to believe that you are a government official or a person who is a candidate for elected office.

1.2. Government officials shall be subject to restrictions on this right as it pertains to the release of information which if released, could threaten the safety and security of the Union.

2. The right to freedom of the press.
3. The right to protest freely and petition the government for the redress of any grievances.
4. The right to a fair trial.
5. The right to run for government office.

5.1. If a candidate in any election fails to answer all questions asked to them by the Founder or Speaker of the House within the debate period, they shall be disqualified from that election.

6. No citizen shall have to answer for a crime committed prior to that act being made criminal.
7. No citizen shall be forced into military or government service without their clear consent.

New Section: Article B: Rights of Citizenship

1. The right to freedom of speech and free expression of political views.

1.1. This right shall not allow citizens to circumvent rules put in place on any offsite venue, as long as these rules are solely for the prevention of spam, flaming, impersonation, doxxing, harassment, to comply with a platform's terms of service, or similar.

1.1.1. Doxxing is defined as publishing private or identifying information about an individual without their consent.
1.1.2. Harassment is defined as repeated or continuing contact serving no useful purpose except to create alarm, annoyance, or cause emotional distress.
1.1.3. Impersonation is defined as deliberately attempting to mislead people to believe that you are a government official or a person who is a candidate for elected office.

1.2. Government officials shall be subject to restrictions on this right as it pertains to the release of information which if released, could threaten the safety and security of the Union.

2. The right to freedom of the press.
3. The right to protest freely and petition the government for the redress of any grievances.
4. The right to a fair trial.
5. The right to run for government office.

5.1. If a candidate in any election fails to answer all questions asked to them by the Founder or Speaker of the House within the debate period, they shall be disqualified from that election.

5.2. No individual may hold any of the following positions simultaneously, except during a state of emergency:
5.2.1. Founder
5.2.2. Prime Minister
5.2.3. Chief Justice
5.2.4. Speaker of the House

5.3. Non-citizens may not hold any government office.


6. No citizen shall have to answer for a crime committed prior to that act being made criminal.
7. No citizen shall be forced into military or government service without their clear consent.

Existing Article: Article F: The High Court

1. The Court shall consist of three justices.
2. Following each general election, the Justices shall elect from among themselves a Chief Justice, who shall be responsible for ensuring that all responsibilities of the Court are upheld.
3. Any citizen may bring a case before the Court. The Justices collectively shall hold the responsibility of deciding whether or not to hear the case. They may only deny a case if it accuses the defendant of an action which is not illegal under any law or statute which applies to them in the Union or which has been found legal by precedent of another case that, except for those involved, was identical.

3.1. Where a justice is the plaintiff or defendant in a case brought before the Court, that justice must recuse themselves from all involvement, except in the capacity of plaintiff or defendant. The Founder must then appoint a special justice to carry out their judicial duties for that case.

4. If a case shall be heard, the defendant must enter a plea of guilt, innocence, or no-contest within a week of the case's acceptance.

4.1. A plea of guilt or no-contest will skip a trial and move directly to sentencing.
4.2. A plea of innocence shall move forward with a trial.

5. Each case in which a plea of innocence was entered into the record shall be heard by a jury of three impartial citizens selected by the Justices. The following are prohibited from serving on a jury: the defendant, the plaintiff, and any citizen currently on trial or who has charges pending.
6. A maximum of two court cases may be heard at one time, based upon the seriousness of the accusation(s). A queue shall be created if more than two cases are pending.
7. The Chief Justice shall oversee all trials, unless they must recuse themselves. If this occurs, the Court may nominate any other justice who is neither indicted nor involved to lead the trial. Each trial shall consist of three stages: opening statements, witness testimony and/or the presentation of evidence, and closing arguments. The trial must be accessible for viewership by all citizens.

7.1. Opening statements shall consist of statements by both the plaintiff and the defendant presenting their respective arguments and an overview, from their perspectives, of the case at hand.
7.2. Witness testimony shall consist of bringing in outside individuals with firsthand knowledge of the alleged wrongdoing or lack thereof to testify. The presentation of evidence shall consist of the presentation of evidence to justify or refute the case at hand. Both the plaintiff and the defendant may choose to bring people or evidence forth for this stage.
7.3. Closing arguments shall consist of arguments by both the plaintiff and the defendant to reiterate their arguments. This may include refuting the testimony of witnesses or evidence from the previous stage. The defendant shall be entitled to deliver the last closing argument. Once closing arguments have concluded, the case shall move to the jury for deliberation.

8. The Jury shall have three days to determine, with a simple majority, whether the defendant is guilty or innocent. If they are considering voting guilty, a jury member must ensure that they have no reasonable doubt about that guilt before voting. Alongside their vote, they must provide fair reasoning for their decision.
9. The Justices collectively shall hold the responsibility of handing out a punishment to a defendant if they are found guilty or plead no contest.

9.1. Unanimous consensus among the justices (not including any recused justice(s), if applicable) shall be required to select a punishment for the guilty party. The Chief Justice must ensure consensus is reached on an appropriate punishment within three days of the guilty verdict. If a unanimous consensus cannot be reached by this deadline, a majority in favor shall suffice.
9.2. The punishment must be fair and appropriate for the crime committed, as outlined in Article J.

10. Any person convicted of a crime may petition the Court for a retrial based on new evidence or judicial precedent.

10.1. On appeal, the Founder will appoint a special appellate court of three justices to oversee the trial. The appellate court shall operate under established trial procedure.
10.2. No jury member who served in the original trial shall be allowed to participate in a new trial.

11. The Justices shall hold the sole authority to judge the constitutionality of federal (excluding the Constitution) law and state/territorial constitutions, per the hierarchy established in Article D. The High Court is the supreme authority on state/territorial law. For every law they review:

11.1. Majority and, if applicable, dissenting opinions on its legality shall be made public.
11.2. Each such opinion must provide comprehensive reasoning for its findings. If the majority opinion rules a law unconstitutional, that law shall be suspended in its entirety. State and territorial constitutions do not need to be suspended in their entirety; the majority opinion must specify which sections of the law are to be suspended.

12. The Court may issue writs of certiorari by a majority vote, which mandate that a lower court deliver its records on a case so that the High Court may review and rule on it. For retrials, the Court shall use established trial procedure.
13. The Court may issue subpoenas by majority vote.

13.1. When a subpoena involves government documents, the documents must be provided to the Court within three days.
13.2. When a subpoena involves an individual, that individual must appear before the Court and submit testimony within one week of the subpoena being issued.

New Article: Article F: The High Court

1. The Court shall consist of three justices.
2. Following each general election, the Justices shall elect from among themselves a Chief Justice, who shall be responsible for ensuring that all responsibilities of the Court are upheld.
3. Any citizen may bring a case before the Court. The Justices collectively shall hold the responsibility of deciding whether or not to hear the case. They may only deny a case if it accuses the defendant of an action which is not illegal under any law or statute which applies to them in the Union or which has been found legal by precedent of another case that, except for those involved, was identical.

3.1. Where a justice is the plaintiff or defendant in a case brought before the Court, that justice must recuse themselves from all involvement, except in the capacity of plaintiff or defendant. The Founder must then appoint a special justice, to be referred to as an Arbiter pro Tempore, to carry out their judicial duties for that case.

4. If a case shall be heard, the defendant must enter a plea of guilt, innocence, or no-contest within a week of the case's acceptance.

4.1. A plea of guilt or no-contest will skip a trial and move directly to sentencing.
4.2. A plea of innocence shall move forward with a trial.

5. Each case in which a plea of innocence was entered into the record shall be heard by a jury of three impartial citizens selected by the Justices. The following are prohibited from serving on a jury: the defendant, the plaintiff, and any citizen currently on trial or who has charges pending.
6. A maximum of two court cases may be heard at one time, based upon the seriousness of the accusation(s). A queue shall be created if more than two cases are pending.
7. The Chief Justice shall oversee all trials, unless they must recuse themselves. If this occurs, the Court may nominate any other justice who is neither indicted nor involved to lead the trial. Each trial shall consist of three stages: opening statements, witness testimony and/or the presentation of evidence, and closing arguments. The trial must be accessible for viewership by all citizens.

7.1. Opening statements shall consist of statements by both the plaintiff and the defendant presenting their respective arguments and an overview, from their perspectives, of the case at hand.
7.2. Witness testimony shall consist of bringing in outside individuals with firsthand knowledge of the alleged wrongdoing or lack thereof to testify. The presentation of evidence shall consist of the presentation of evidence to justify or refute the case at hand. Both the plaintiff and the defendant may choose to bring people or evidence forth for this stage.
7.3. Closing arguments shall consist of arguments by both the plaintiff and the defendant to reiterate their arguments. This may include refuting the testimony of witnesses or evidence from the previous stage. The defendant shall be entitled to deliver the last closing argument. Once closing arguments have concluded, the case shall move to the jury for deliberation.

8. The Jury shall have three days to determine, with a simple majority, whether the defendant is guilty or innocent. If they are considering voting guilty, a jury member must ensure that they have no reasonable doubt about that guilt before voting. Alongside their vote, they must provide fair reasoning for their decision.
9. The Justices collectively shall hold the responsibility of handing out a punishment to a defendant if they are found guilty or plead no contest.

9.1. Unanimous consensus among the justices (not including any recused justice(s), if applicable) shall be required to select a punishment for the guilty party. The Chief Justice must ensure consensus is reached on an appropriate punishment within three days of the guilty verdict. If a unanimous consensus cannot be reached by this deadline, a majority in favor shall suffice.
9.2. The punishment must be fair and appropriate for the crime committed, as outlined in Article J.

10. Any person convicted of a crime may petition the Court for a retrial based on new evidence or judicial precedent.

10.1. On appeal, the Founder will appoint a special appellate court of three justices to oversee the trial. The appellate court shall operate under established trial procedure. Members of the appellate court shall be referred to by the title Arbiter pro Tempore.
10.2. No jury member who served in the original trial shall be allowed to participate in a new trial.

11. The Justices shall hold the sole authority to judge the constitutionality of federal (excluding the Constitution) law and state/territorial constitutions, per the hierarchy established in Article D. The High Court is the supreme authority on state/territorial law. For every law they review:

11.1. Majority and, if applicable, dissenting opinions on its legality shall be made public.
11.2. Each such opinion must provide comprehensive reasoning for its findings. If the majority opinion rules a law unconstitutional, that law shall be suspended in its entirety. State and territorial constitutions do not need to be suspended in their entirety; the majority opinion must specify which sections of the law are to be suspended.

12. The Court may issue writs of certiorari by a majority vote, which mandate that a lower court deliver its records on a case so that the High Court may review and rule on it. For retrials, the Court shall use established trial procedure.
13. The Court may issue subpoenas by majority vote.

13.1. When a subpoena involves government documents, the documents must be provided to the Court within three days.
13.2. When a subpoena involves an individual, that individual must appear before the Court and submit testimony within one week of the subpoena being issued.

9
Requests for Review / Order for Review: RGBN Constitution
« on: November 13, 2021, 02:16:08 pm »
The Constitution of RGBN may be in violation of House Bill 65.

Justification:
Article I of the RGBN Constitution makes reference to Suterism, which the High Court has ruled to be a Harmful Society.
Quote
Article I: Suter & Suterism
1. Suter is to be defined as the nation of Suter.
2. Suter is to be the on site World Assembly Delegate of RGBN.
3. Suterism is to be the state religion of RGBN.

10
Courtroom / High Court Ruling on Suterism
« on: October 10, 2021, 10:29:02 pm »
The High Court has been made aware of concerns surrounding Suterism. Pursuant to the Harmful Societies Act, the High Court has investigated and found that Suterism meets the outlined criteria for classification as a harmful society. As of October 10 at 22:29 EST, members of Suterism have one week to leave the organization. Individuals who continue to associate themselves with Suterism will face legal consequences.

11
House Bill 63: The Freedom of Information Act (FoIA) (Revised IV)

Author(s): Originally by Sir Salibaic and Renegalle; Revised by Tigslarlowducken and Sir Salibaic

Purpose: In order to provide the public with the right to request access to records from any governmental authority and to require those authorities to disclose any information requested under the FoIA, within reason.

Article 1: Government Authorities

1. A Government Authority shall be defined under this act as: “Any authority which has a legal mandate to govern or administrate an aspect of public life within the Union of Force.”

2. Government Authorities included in this act.

2.1. Any Federal Ministry or Executive Committee.
2.2. The House of Representatives of the Union of Force.
2.3. The High Court of the Union of Force.
2.4. The High Commission.
2.5. Any Territorial Authority.
2.6. Any Federal Governmental Programs.
2.7. Any Territorial Governmental Programs.
2.8. Any other Government Authority not mentioned herein with the exclusion of the Union Federal Cabinet of Force

Article 2: Right to a Request for Information

1. All Union citizens have the right to request information from any Government Authority as listed in this act.

Article 3: FoIA Request Process

1. In order to request access to information under FoIA, a citizen shall file a FoIA Request to the High Court.
1.1. A request must be made using the following format:

Name: [Name of the Nation Requesting]
Contact Information: [Method of contact, such as Discord tag or nation link]
Request: [A detailed description of the information requested - for example, an individual might request all information on a given subject, a summary thereof, or a specific document held by a Government Authority.]

2. After a FoIA Request has been made, the High Court shall have up to 5 days to determine whether or not the information requested is too sensitive to release.
2.1. If the request is approved, the High Court shall notify the Government Authority/Authorities affected by the FoIA request, at which point they will have 48 hours to release the relevant information to the High Court, which will deliver the document to the public. The High Court may choose to redact sensitive information, giving a detailed explanation for why each passage was redacted and clearly marking where information has been redacted. Government Authorities may request that the High Court redact certain sections, but may not withhold information from the Court under penalty of perjury.
2.2. If the request is denied, the relevant Government Authority must give a detailed explanation as to why. Personal information shall not require an in-depth explanation.

3. In the event that a request is denied as detailed in §3.2:2.1, an appeal may be made.
3.1. The appeal shall go before an appellate tribunal comprised of the Founder, the Chief Justice, and one other High Court Justice of the Founder’s choosing.
3.2. The requested information shall be presented to the tribunal as well as the reason(s) for the denial. The tribunal will then deliberate and issue a decision as to whether the information should be made public.
3.3. If the appeal succeeds, then the information requested shall be issued.
3.4. If the appeal fails, then requests for the same information may not be made for two weeks.

Article 4: Government Logs and Updates

1. All ministers, as defined in the Constitution, shall be mandated to publish a public update on their fulfilment of duties every month.
1.1. The update must contain: what has been completed, what is currently being worked on, what remains to be done, and a summary.
1.2. Failure to perform these duties within 1 week of month passing shall be considered nonfeasance.

Article 5: FoIA Request Logs

1. The Minister of Internal Affairs must keep a record of all FoIA Requests in a publicly accessible location.

Article 6: Repeal
1. House Bill 57 is repealed by this Act.

12
Bills / House Bill 64: Honorifics Act
« on: September 30, 2021, 01:19:11 pm »
House Bill 64: Honorifics Act
Purpose: To prescribe the use of Union-wide honorifics
Authors: Tigslarlowducken, Renegalle, Salibaic

Article A: Usage
1. Federal honorifics are titles bestowed upon an individual as the result of holding a federal office.
2. The use of honorifics is not mandatory, but may be used in formal circumstances.
3. State and territorial honorifics are titles bestowed upon an individual as the result of territorial law.
3.1. State and territorial honorifics may not be used when conducting federal business.

Article B: Governmental Honorifics
1. The Founder/Emperor of the Union of Force may be referred to as “His Imperial Majesty” and/or “The Lord Emperor of the Union of Force” or simply as “Sir”.
2. The Prime Minister may be referred to as “The Right Honourable Prime Minister” or “Mx. Prime Minister” or as “The Lord Prime Minister of The Union of Force”.
3. The Chief Justice of the High Court may be referred to as “The Right Honourable Chief Justice” or as “Lord Chief Justice of The Union of Force”.
3.1 Justices of the High Court other than the Chief Justice may be referred to as “The Honorable Justice”.
3.2. During a Court session, all Justices will be referred to as “Your Honor” regardless of rank.
4. The Speaker of the House may be referred to as “The Right Honourable Speaker” or “The Lord Speaker of The Union of Force” or as “Mx. Speaker”.
4.1. House Representatives may be referred to as “The Honourable Representative”.
5. Ministers may be referred to as “Lord [Name] of the Ministry of [Ministry]” or “Lord”.

Article C: Special Honorifics
1. DOT Citizens shall be referred to as “Emperor’s Counsellor”.
2. Knights and Dames of the Union may use the prefix “Sir” or “Lady”.
3. Citizens who have acted as prosecutor or defense in greater than or equal to three trials may use the postnominal “Esquire”.

13
House Impeachment 5
Official: Krovx Belgium
Positions: Justice
Author: Tigslarlowducken

Due to gross negligence, I hereby initiate impeachment proceedings against Krovx Belgium.

14
House Impeachment 4
Official: Krovx Belgium
Positions: All positions currently held by Krovx Belgium in RGBN
Author: Tigslarlowducken

Due to gross negligence, I hereby initiate impeachment proceedings against Krovx Belgium.

15
Representative Proposals / Amendment X: Legal Reform
« on: June 17, 2021, 06:37:53 pm »
Existing Article:
Article I: Illegal Activities

1. Treason

1.1. Attempting to or successfully undermining the legitimate government of the Union or its allies.
1.2. Attempting to or successfully harming the people of the Union or the people of the Union's allies.
1.3. Attempting to or successfully raiding or illegally occupying a region of the Union of Force or its allies.

2. Espionage

2.1. Attempting to or successfully accessing sensitive information without prior approval from the Founder or Prime Minister.
2.2. Attempting to or successfully sharing sensitive information without prior approval from the Founder or Prime Minister.

3. Conspiracy

3.1. Collaborating with one or more other citizens to commit any of the activities in this Article.
3.2. Collaborating with one or more foreign nationals to commit any of the activities in this Article.
3.3. Collaborating with a mix of citizens and foreign nationals to commit any of the activities in this Article.

4. Voting Fraud

4.1. Attempting to or successfully undermining the validity of an election through the creation of multiple accounts.
4.2. Attempting to or successfully undermining the validity of an election, referendum, or vote of any other kind by bringing in nations to vote for one or more specific candidates or ideas.
4.3. Attempting to or successfully undermining the validity of an election by means of something other than that mentioned in §I.4.1 and §I.4.2.

5. Perjury

5.1. Lying or willfully deceiving a member of the Court or Jury during a trial or through the providing of fake or manipulated evidence.

6. Nonfeasance and Malfeasance

6.1. Nonfeasance shall be defined as a failure to perform one's responsibilities in any government office.
6.2. Malfeasance shall be defined as violating the Constitution or any other binding law in a manner other than specified in the preceding clauses.

New Article:
Article I: Illegal Activities

1. Treason

1.1. Attempting to or successfully undermining the legitimate government of the Union or its allies.
1.2. Attempting to or successfully harming the people of the Union or the people of the Union's allies.
1.3. Attempting to or successfully raiding or illegally occupying a region of the Union of Force or its allies.

2. Espionage

2.1. Attempting to or successfully accessing and/or sharing sensitive information without prior approval from the Founder or Prime Minister.
2.2. Attempting to or successfully sharing sensitive information without prior approval from the Founder or Prime Minister.

3. Conspiracy

3.1. Collaborating with one or more other citizens to commit any of the activities in this Article.
3.2. Collaborating with one or more foreign nationals to commit any of the activities in this Article.
3.3. Collaborating with a mix of citizens and foreign nationals to commit any of the activities in this Article.
3.3. Attempting to coerce one or more citizens to commit any of the activities in this Article.
3.4. Attempting to coerce one or more foreign nationals to commit any of the activities in this Article.


4. Voting Fraud

4.1. Attempting to or successfully undermining the validity of an election or referendum through the creation of multiple accounts.
4.2. Attempting to or successfully undermining the validity of an election, referendum, or vote of any other kind by bringing in nations to vote for one or more specific candidates or ideas.
4.3. Attempting to or successfully undermining the validity of an election by means of something other than that mentioned in §I.4.1 and §I.4.2.

4.2. Examples of voter fraud include:
4.2.1. Attempting to or successfully undermining the validity of an election, referendum, or vote of any other kind through the creation of multiple accounts.
4.2.2. Attempting to or successfully undermining the validity of an election, referendum, or vote of any other kind by bringing in nations to vote for one or more specific candidates or ideas.


5. Perjury

5.1. Lying or willfully deceiving a member of the Court or Jury during a trial or through the providing of fake or manipulated evidence. The willful submission of false testimony under oath or affirmation, before the High Court, upon or regarding an item or subject material to a legal inquiry.

6. Nonfeasance and Malfeasance

6.1. Nonfeasance shall be defined as a failure to perform one's responsibilities in any government office.
6.2. Malfeasance shall be defined as violating the Constitution or any other binding law in a manner other than specified in the preceding clauses.

Existing Article:
Article J: Punishments

1. The crimes of treason and espionage may be punished with:

1.1. Removal of citizenship
1.2. Temporary removal of the ability to vote; for a maximum of 2 years.
1.3. Temporary removal of the right to hold or run for public office; for a maximum of 2 years.

2. The crimes of voting fraud and malfeasance may be punished with:

2.1. Temporary removal of the ability to vote; for a maximum of 1 year.
2.2. Temporary removal of the right to hold or run for public office; for a maximum of 2 years.

3. The crime of nonfeasance may be punished with:

3.1. Temporary removal of the right to hold or run for public office; for a maximum of 6 months.

4. The crimes of perjury and conspiracy to commit perjury may be punished with:

4.1. Temporary removal of the ability to participate as a witness or provider of evidence in any trial; for a maximum of 1 year.
4.2. Temporary removal of the ability to vote; for a maximum of 6 months.

5. The crime of conspiracy to commit treason or espionage may be punished with:

5.1. Removal of citizenship
5.2. Temporary removal of the ability to vote; for a maximum of 1 year.
5.3. Temporary removal of the right to hold or run for public office; for a maximum of 1 year.

6. The crime of conspiracy to commit voting fraud or malfeasance may be punished with:

6.1. Temporary removal of the ability to vote; for a maximum of 6 months.
6.2. Temporary removal of the right to hold or run for public office; for a maximum of 1 year.

7. The crime of conspiracy to commit nonfeasance may be punished with:

7.1. Temporary removal of the right to hold or run for public office; for a maximum of 3 months.

New Article:
Article J: Punishments

1. The crimes of treason and espionage may be punished with:

1.1. Removal of citizenship
1.2. Temporary removal of the ability to vote;, for a maximum of 2 years.
1.3. Temporary removal of the right to hold or run for public office;, for a maximum of 2 years.

2. The crimes of voting fraud and malfeasance may be punished with:

2.1. Temporary removal of the ability to vote;, for a maximum of 1 year.
2.2. Temporary removal of the right to hold or run for public office;, for a maximum of 2 years.

3. The crime of nonfeasance may be punished with:

3.1. Temporary removal of the right to hold or run for public office;, for a maximum of 6 months.

4. The crimes of perjury and conspiracy to commit perjury may be punished with:

4.1. Temporary removal of the ability to participate as a witness or provider of evidence in any trial;, for a maximum of 1 year.
4.2. Temporary removal of the right to hold or run for public office, for a maximum of 1 year.
4.2.3. Temporary removal of the ability to vote;, for a maximum of 6 months.

5. The crime of conspiracy to commit treason or espionage may be punished with:

5.1. Removal of citizenship
5.2. Temporary removal of the ability to vote;, for a maximum of 1 year.
5.3. Temporary removal of the right to hold or run for public office;, for a maximum of 1 year.

6. The crime of conspiracy to commit voting fraud or malfeasance may be punished with:

6.1. Temporary removal of the ability to vote;, for a maximum of 6 months.
6.2. Temporary removal of the right to hold or run for public office;, for a maximum of 1 year.

7. The crime of conspiracy to commit nonfeasance may be punished with:

7.1. Temporary removal of the right to hold or run for public office;, for a maximum of 3 months.

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