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Messages - Renegalle

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1
Executive Orders / Re: Executive Actions
« on: December 02, 2021, 05:26:22 pm »
Appointment of New Glaceon as Queen of The New Kingdom



Effective immediately, under §K.5 of the Constitution, New Glaceon is appointed as Queen of The New Kingdom.

2
Executive Orders / Re: Executive Actions
« on: November 14, 2021, 06:54:39 pm »
Appointment of West Kronisia as High Commissioner



Effective immediately, under the auspices of §K.2 of the Constitution, West Kronisia is appointed as High Commissioner.

3
Elections / Voting Results: General Election, November 2021
« on: November 13, 2021, 12:24:55 am »
Voting Results: General Election, November 2021




Official Voting Results for the November 2021 General Election can be found here.


4
Elections / Re: Debate: Union General Election, November 2021
« on: November 08, 2021, 01:47:42 am »
Under §B.5.1 of the Union Constitution, the following candidates are disqualified for failing to answer the required questions in the Debate:

Candidates for Prime Minister:
Krovx Belgium
Burgers in CAD

Candidates for the House of Representatives:
Krovx Belgium - RGBN
Bertilistan - Union List Seat

5
Elections / Re: Debate: Union General Election, November 2021
« on: November 06, 2021, 01:52:31 pm »
On account of their inability to access the forums at the present time, below are responses to the required debate questions, submitted by Sir Sumeka:



1. Which House Bills do you plan to pass and/or repeal? Why?
None, as I have been out of the house for quite a while and instead want to focus on analyzing any newer Bills that are being passed.

2. In what ways should the Constitution be amended, if at all? Explain how the changes would improve the current system of governance.
The Constitution should be amended to allow more flexibility among the representatives. I think that provisions should also be made so the constitution can be easier to read and understand more so for those who are largely uninvolved in force's politics. This benefits the government by having a more informed voter base and also decreases political apathy.

3. What qualifies you to serve in the House? What makes this qualifying?
I have served several terms as a House Representative, Minister of RP for a a collective time of almost a year, as well as First Minister of Heart, and finally, as a  Justice on the Court. I have a long history of serving force and have a good understanding of both the community and the government, and can apply it to my tenure as a house rep, if elected again.

4. Do you think any changes should be made to existing House Procedures? If so, what changes should be made and why?
House debates are often hostile with some members resorting to ad hominem. I would like to establish some sort of a mediator/moderator role for the house debates, to ensure debates are on topic, and do not devolve into personal attacks that are reductive and unnecessary.

5. If elected, do you plan on running for Speaker? If so, what makes you a good candidate for this position and if not, who do you think would be a better candidate?
No, but I have considered it in the past. I do not feel that I would serve well in such a capacity.

6. How do you plan to ensure the voices of your constituents are heard while in office?
I intend to have an "open door" policy, and at any time my constituents may contact me via whatever means they have to question me and tell me what they need from me as their representative. I will take citizen's insights into out debates into serious consideration.

7. How do you feel about the influence parties have on the House and electoral process, and should it be more or less? Explain your answer fully.
I believe parties play too large of a role inside of Force Politics. Eventually, I would like to have party less democracy, in which members are focused on solely representing their constituents as opposed to a party centric policy, or any kind of favoritism. Not to say that no collaboration could exist under such a system, but that parties in large are a big cause of friction inside of Force.

8. The House of Representatives is the sole legal body with the ability to remove a Prime Minister from office with citizens vote after confirming it. Under what circumstances would you support the removal of one and what constitutes 'going too far'? Cite specific legal passages if necessary and ensure that your answer is sufficiently detailed.
I would only consider removal if evidence of a serious crime, such as treason, were unmissable and undeniable to a reasonable person, and if in general the public supported such a removal. The Prime Minister has an example to set, and must follow laws much like everyone else however. I would impeach for a lesser offense were it part of a long string of other crimes.

6
Executive Orders / Re: Executive Actions
« on: November 01, 2021, 12:59:04 am »
Appointment of Battadia in Hyperion as Governor of Hyperion



Effective immediately, under §K.5 of the Constitution, Battadia in Hyperion is appointed as Governor of Hyperion.

7
Executive Orders / Re: Executive Actions
« on: November 01, 2021, 12:35:25 am »
Appointment of King Burgermond as King of The New Kingdom



Effective immediately, under §K.5 of the Constitution, King Burgermond is appointed as King of The New Kingdom.

8
Constitutional Amendments / Re: Amendment 41: Term Reform Act
« on: October 31, 2021, 11:42:54 pm »

10
Constitutional Amendments / Amendment 40: Judicial and Vacancy Reform Act
« on: October 23, 2021, 02:53:56 pm »
Amendment 40: Judicial and Vacancy Reform Act

Purpose: An Act to reform the High Court and the process in which justices are selected in order to promote competence, efficiency, justice, and transparency; an Act to reorganize the vacancies article in order to improve the structuring of this constitution.

Authors: Renegalle and Tigslarlowducken

Existing Section, Article F: The High Court
1. The Court shall consist of three or five justices.
2. At the beginning of each elected term, the Justices shall elect from among themselves a Chief Justice, who shall be responsible for ensuring that all responsibilities of the Court are upheld.
3. Any citizen may bring a case before the Court. The Justices collectively shall hold the responsibility of deciding whether or not to hear the case. They may only deny a case if it accuses the defendant of an action which is not illegal under any law or statute which applies to them in the Union or which has been found legal by precedent of another case that, except for those involved, was identical.
3.1. If a case brought to the Court indicts a justice, that justice must recuse themselves from involvement in all stages of that case. The Founder must appoint a special justice to temporarily fulfill their role for that case.
4. If the case shall be heard, the defendant is required to enter a plea of guilt, innocence, or no contest within a week of the case's acceptance.
4.1. A plea of guilt will skip a trial and move directly to sentencing.
4.2. A plea of innocence shall move forward with a trial.
4.3. A plea of no contest means that you do not admit guilt or innocence. The case will move before the justices for sentencing.
5. Each case in which a plea of not guilty was entered into the record shall be heard by a jury of 3 impartial citizens selected by the Justices. The following are prohibited from serving on a jury: the defendant, the plaintiff, or any citizen currently on trial or that has charges pending.
6. A maximum of two court cases may be heard at one time, based upon the seriousness of the accusation(s). A queue shall be created if more than two cases are pending.
7. The Chief Justice shall oversee all trials except in the case of clause 3.1, in this case the Court may nominate any other justice not indicted or involved to lead the trial. Each trial shall consist of three stages: opening statements, witness testimony and/or the presentation of evidence, and closing arguments. The trial must be accessible for viewership by all citizens.
7.1. Opening statements shall consist of statements by both the plaintiff and the defendant presenting their respective arguments and an overview, from their perspectives, of the case at hand.
7.2. Witness testimony shall consist of bringing in outside individuals with firsthand knowledge of the alleged wrongdoing or lack thereof to testify. The presentation of evidence shall consist of the presentation of evidence to justify or refute the case at hand. Both the plaintiff and the defendant may choose to bring people or evidence forth for this stage.
7.3. Closing arguments shall consist of arguments by both the plaintiff and the defendant to reiterate their arguments. This may include refuting the testimony of witnesses or evidence from the previous stage. The defendant shall be entitled to deliver the last closing argument. Once closing arguments have concluded, the case shall move to the jury for deliberation.
8. The Jury shall have 3 days to determine, with a simple majority, whether the defendant is guilty or innocent. If they are considering voting guilty, a jury member must ensure that they have no reasonable doubt about that guilt before voting. Alongside their vote, they must provide fair reasoning for their decision.
9. The Justices collectively shall hold the responsibility of handing out a punishment to a defendant if they are found guilty or plead no contest.
9.1. Unanimous consensus among the justices (not including a recused justice, if there is one) shall be required to select a punishment for the guilty party. The Chief Justice must ensure consensus is reached on an appropriate punishment within 3 days of the guilty verdict. If a unanimous consensus cannot be reached after 3 days, a majority in favor shall suffice.
9.2. The punishment must be fair and appropriate for the crime committed, as outlined in Article J.
10. Any person convicted of a crime may petition the Court for a new trial based on new evidence.
10.1. On appeal, the Founder will appoint a special team of 3 justices to oversee the trial. This special team shall operate under the normal rules for a trial.
10.2. No jury member who served in the original trial shall be allowed to participate in a new trial.
11. The Justices shall hold the sole authority to judge the legality of all House Laws (excluding Constitutional amendments) and State or Territorial Constitutions (or the equivalents thereof) and amendments to the aforementioned. They shall also hold the authority to judge the legality of executive, treaty, and other State or Territorial laws, though they are not required to do so. For every law they review:
11.1. All three Justices must present their individual verdict in a public statement.
11.2. A simple majority among the justices shall be required to find a law unconstitutional.
11.3. If they judge a law to be unconstitutional, they must suspend it, in its entirety, providing a comprehensive legal argument to explain the reasons for its unconstitutionality.

New Section, Article F: The High Court
1. The Court shall consist of three justices.
2. Following each general election, the Justices shall elect from among themselves a Chief Justice, who shall be responsible for ensuring that all responsibilities of the Court are upheld.
3. Any citizen may bring a case before the Court. The Justices collectively shall hold the responsibility of deciding whether or not to hear the case. They may only deny a case if it accuses the defendant of an action which is not illegal under any law or statute which applies to them in the Union or which has been found legal by precedent of another case that, except for those involved, was identical.
3.1. Where a justice is the plaintiff or defendant in a case brought before the Court, that justice must recuse themselves from all involvement, except in the capacity of plaintiff or defendant. The Founder must then appoint a special justice to carry out their judicial duties for that case.
4. If a case shall be heard, the defendant must enter a plea of guilt, innocence, or no-contest within a week of the case's acceptance.
4.1. A plea of guilt or no-contest will skip a trial and move directly to sentencing.
4.2. A plea of innocence shall move forward with a trial.
5. Each case in which a plea of innocence was entered into the record shall be heard by a jury of three impartial citizens selected by the Justices. The following are prohibited from serving on a jury: the defendant, the plaintiff, and any citizen currently on trial or who has charges pending.
6. A maximum of two court cases may be heard at one time, based upon the seriousness of the accusation(s). A queue shall be created if more than two cases are pending.
7. The Chief Justice shall oversee all trials, unless they must recuse themselves. If this occurs, the Court may nominate any other justice who is neither indicted nor involved to lead the trial. Each trial shall consist of three stages: opening statements, witness testimony and/or the presentation of evidence, and closing arguments. The trial must be accessible for viewership by all citizens.
7.1. Opening statements shall consist of statements by both the plaintiff and the defendant presenting their respective arguments and an overview, from their perspectives, of the case at hand.
7.2. Witness testimony shall consist of bringing in outside individuals with firsthand knowledge of the alleged wrongdoing or lack thereof to testify. The presentation of evidence shall consist of the presentation of evidence to justify or refute the case at hand. Both the plaintiff and the defendant may choose to bring people or evidence forth for this stage.
7.3. Closing arguments shall consist of arguments by both the plaintiff and the defendant to reiterate their arguments. This may include refuting the testimony of witnesses or evidence from the previous stage. The defendant shall be entitled to deliver the last closing argument. Once closing arguments have concluded, the case shall move to the jury for deliberation.
8. The Jury shall have three days to determine, with a simple majority, whether the defendant is guilty or innocent. If they are considering voting guilty, a jury member must ensure that they have no reasonable doubt about that guilt before voting. Alongside their vote, they must provide fair reasoning for their decision.
9. The Justices collectively shall hold the responsibility of handing out a punishment to a defendant if they are found guilty or plead no contest.
9.1. Unanimous consensus among the justices (not including any recused justice(s), if applicable) shall be required to select a punishment for the guilty party. The Chief Justice must ensure consensus is reached on an appropriate punishment within three days of the guilty verdict. If a unanimous consensus cannot be reached by this deadline, a majority in favor shall suffice.
9.2. The punishment must be fair and appropriate for the crime committed, as outlined in Article J.
10. Any person convicted of a crime may petition the Court for a retrial based on new evidence or judicial precedent.
10.1. On appeal, the Founder will appoint a special appellate court of three justices to oversee the trial. The appellate court shall operate under established trial procedure.
10.2. No jury member who served in the original trial shall be allowed to participate in a new trial.
11. The Justices shall hold the sole authority to judge the constitutionality of federal (excluding the Constitution) law and state/territorial constitutions, per the hierarchy established in Article D. The High Court is the supreme authority on state/territorial law. For every law they review:
11.1. Majority and, if applicable, dissenting opinions on its legality shall be made public.
11.2. Each such opinion must provide comprehensive reasoning for its findings. If the majority opinion rules a law unconstitutional, that law shall be suspended in its entirety. State and territorial constitutions do not need to be suspended in their entirety; the majority opinion must specify which sections of the law are to be suspended.
12. The Court may issue writs of certiorari by a majority vote, which mandate that a lower court deliver its records on a case so that the High Court may review and rule on it. For retrials, the Court shall use established trial procedure.
13. The Court may issue subpoenas by majority vote.
13.1. When a subpoena involves government documents, the documents must be provided to the Court within three days.
13.2. When a subpoena involves an individual, that individual must appear before the Court and submit testimony within one week of the subpoena being issued.

Existing Section, Article G: Absences
1. A government office is considered absent when:
1.1. The office holder has lost citizenship.
1.2. The office holder has not spoken or performed their duties on the NationStates website, Force forums, or Force Discord server in at least 1 week.
1.2.1. If a government official anticipates an absence this long, in order to maintain their position, they must provide reasonable cause for it prior to the absence and designate another official in their area of government to take on their responsibilities. This shall not apply to the Court, whose members are subject to §G.6, regardless of the circumstances.
1.2.1.1. A House Representative may take a leave of absence of up to one week and retain their job. However, they may not designate another official to take on their responsibilities, and must notify the Speaker of the House prior to their absence with reasoning for said absence.
1.3. The office holder has resigned.
1.4. The office holder has been removed from office.
1.5. The office was left absent following an election.
2. In addition to the above conditions, an office in the House of Representatives shall be considered absent when:
2.1. The nation with which the office holder was elected is no longer present in the region.
3. In the case of an absence in the office of Prime Minister, the Deputy Prime Minister shall assume the position of Prime Minister.
3.1. In the case that there is no Deputy Prime Minister or them choosing not to take the office of Prime Minister, the matter shall go to the House, who shall be responsible for choosing a new Prime Minister.
3.2. Any House Representative may nominate a member of the Cabinet or House for Prime Minister, provided that the nominee has agreed to their nomination. Both the nominations period and the subsequent vote shall last for 24 hours. The nominee with a majority of the vote shall become Prime Minister.
3.2.1. If no nominee receives a majority of the vote, a second vote shall be held in which only the two nominees with the highest vote totals remain. The nominee who receives a majority of the vote after 24 hours shall become Prime Minister.
3.3. If no nominations are made, an emergency election, following the same rules as a regular election, must be held.
4. In the case of an absence in the Cabinet, the Prime Minister must appoint a replacement within 7 days.
5. If all seats in the House of Representatives are vacant, an emergency election, following the same rules as a regular election, must be held if the next election for it is more than one month away.
6. In the case of an absence in the Court, the Founder must appoint a replacement within 5 days or choose to hold an emergency election for the position.
7. In the case of any other absence, unless otherwise specified by law, the office shall be considered vacant and no further action shall be taken.

New Section, Article G: Vacancies
1. A government office is considered vacant when:
1.1. The office holder has lost citizenship.
1.2. The office holder has not spoken or performed their duties on the NationStates website, Force forums, or Force Discord server in at least one week.
1.2.1. If a government official anticipates an absence this long, in order to maintain their position, they must provide reasonable cause for it prior to the absence and designate another official in their area of government to take on their responsibilities. This shall not apply to the Court, whose members are subject to §G.6, regardless of the circumstances.
1.2.1.1. A House Representative may take a leave of absence of up to one week and retain their job. However, they may not designate another official to take on their responsibilities, and must notify the Speaker of the House prior to their absence with reasoning for said absence.
1.3. The office holder has resigned.
1.4. The office holder has been removed from office.
1.5. The office was left vacant following an election.
2. In addition to the above conditions, an office in the House of Representatives shall be considered vacant when:
2.1. The nation with which the office holder was elected is no longer present in the region.
3. Should the office of Prime Minister become vacant, upon their agreement, the Deputy Prime Minister shall assume the office. Should they choose not to assume the office, the matter shall be deliberated in the House, which shall choose a new Prime Minister.
3.1. All Representatives shall be able to nominate citizens for the office, provided they agree to their nomination. A subsequent vote shall be held in the House, and the nominee who receives a majority shall assume the office of Prime Minister. Both the nominations and voting period shall each last one day. If no nominee receives a majority, a second vote, lasting one day, between the two nominees with the highest voting totals, shall be held.
3.2. If no nominations are made, or if a tie cannot be broken, an emergency election, following the same rules as a regular election, must begin within one week.
4. Should a vacancy arise in the Cabinet, the Prime Minister must appoint a replacement within one week.
5. Should all seats in the House of Representatives be vacant, an emergency election, following the same rules as a regular election, must begin within one week. If a seat allotted to a political party becomes vacant, that party may designate another individual to fill the seat.
6. Should a vacancy arise in the Court or should a proposed nominee be rejected by the citizens, the Justices shall collectively decide upon and nominate a replacement within one week. The Chief Justice shall make a public announcement regarding this nomination, and it shall be brought by the Speaker to the citizens for a vote. A simple majority in favor of the nomination, within four days, shall be required to confirm the nominee.
7. In the case of any other vacancy, unless otherwise specified by law, no further action shall be taken.

Existing Section, Article H: Elections
1. Stages
1.1. Elections shall begin with candidacy declarations, which shall be open for 3 days.
1.1.1. In midterm elections, registered political parties and independent candidates shall be able to declare their candidacy, with parties being required to provide lists of candidates for the allocated seats. They may only choose candidates from that list if they are allocated seats, unless extraordinary circumstances, such as an absence, or a list candidate leaving the party, require otherwise.
1.2. Following this, a debate, open to questions by all citizens, shall be held for 3 days.
1.3. The last stage shall be voting, which shall be held for 4 days.
1.4. Following the completion of one stage in an election, the next stage shall begin within 12 hours.
1.5. Should circumstances necessitate it, each stage may be shortened by up to one day. The length of a stage may not be changed once that stage has begun.
2. Voting
2.1. Voting for Prime Minister shall follow this process:
2.1.1. If there are two candidates, voters shall choose their preferred candidate and the candidate with a majority of votes shall be elected. If there are more than two candidates, voters may rank their preferred candidates. Their favorite candidate shall be ranked 1, their second favorite 2, and so on as far as they wish to do rankings. Each candidate may only be ranked once. Only a voter’s last preference(s) may be marked as an abstention.
2.1.2. First preference votes shall be counted initially. If a candidate achieves a majority after this, they shall be elected. Otherwise, the candidate with the least votes shall be eliminated and the second preferences of that candidate's voters shall be counted instead. This process of elimination and counting next preferences shall be repeated until one candidate has a majority of votes.
2.1.2.1. If no candidate can be eliminated or more than one can be eliminated, the second preferences of all voters shall take the place of first preference ones. If a candidate has a majority of votes at this stage, they shall be elected. Otherwise, this process shall be repeated with each successive preference until it is possible to eliminate just one candidate.
2.1.2.2. If all of a voter's preferences have been eliminated, their ballot shall not be used in further counting.
2.1.2.3. Abstentions shall not be considered in determining whether or not a candidate has achieved a majority.
2.2. The voting process shall vary between general and midterm elections for seats in the House of Representatives.
2.2.1. In general elections, residents of the capital, states, and territories may rank their preferred candidates to fill the seats indicated in §E.2.2. Their favorite candidate shall be ranked 1, their second favorite 2, and so on as far as they wish to do rankings. Each candidate may only be ranked once. Only a voter’s last preference(s) may be marked as an abstention.
2.2.1.1. The total number of votes cast in each region divided by the number of seats allocated to that region shall determine how many votes a candidate is required to gain a seat representing it. If this is not a whole number, it shall be rounded to the nearest one. Abstentions shall not be considered when determining the total number of votes cast.
2.2.1.2. Each candidate who receives the required number of votes shall be elected.
2.2.1.2.1. In the first round, those candidates with the required number of votes in voters’ first preferences shall be elected. If any such candidate achieves more votes than required, then their surplus votes shall be transferred to their voters’ second preference candidates, or if these candidates have already been elected or eliminated, then to their third preference candidates and so on.
2.2.1.3. In the second round, if there are still unallocated seats and multiple candidates who have not yet been elected, the candidate(s) with the least votes shall automatically be eliminated. Votes for these candidate(s) shall be transferred to their voters’ second preference, third preference, or likewise ordered candidates until an unelected and uneliminated candidate exists to which the vote can be transferred. This round shall continue until all candidates have been elected or eliminated.
2.2.1.4. If all of a voter's preferences have been counted, their ballot shall not be used in further counting.
2.2.1.5. This process shall be repeated with the capital and each state or territory until the total number of seats allocated are filled. If any allocated seats cannot be filled, they shall be considered absent as indicated in §G.
2.2.2. In midterm elections, Union residents may cast their vote for a registered political party or an independent candidate.
2.2.2.1. Each party and each independent candidate shall be allocated seats according to the total number of votes cast divided by the number of available seats and this calculation shall determine how many votes a party or independent candidate needs to gain a seat. Abstentions shall not be considered in this calculation.
2.2.2.1.1. An independent candidate may not be allocated more than one seat in this process.
2.3. In elections for Court Justices, ballots shall allow citizens to vote for or against each candidate. They may vote, at maximum, for up to five candidates if there are at least that many candidates for the position. Otherwise, they may vote, at maximum, for up to three candidates. The candidates with more votes for than against them shall be elected.
2.4. If for any reason, an election ends with no candidate holding a majority of the vote, whether by process of elimination or otherwise, another vote, following the same procedures and lasting one day, shall be held. If there is only one candidate in that contest, their seat shall be considered absent as indicated in §G.
2.5. If there is only one candidate for a position, voters must approve of that candidate with a simple majority in order for them to be elected.
3. Oversight
3.1. All stages of general and midterm elections shall be started, overseen, and run by the Speaker of the House of Representatives.
3.2. The Speaker shall be responsible for ensuring the citizens of the Union are informed of the start of each election stage, no later than 12 hours after each stage has begun. They must ensure all citizens are notified both by telegram and on the Union’s regional Discord servers.

New Section, Article H: Elections
1. Stages
1.1. Elections shall begin with candidacy declarations, which shall be open for three days.
1.1.1. In midterm elections, registered political parties and independent candidates shall be able to declare their candidacy, with parties being required to provide lists of candidates for the allocated seats. They may only choose candidates from that list if they are allocated seats, unless extraordinary circumstances, such as an absence, or a list candidate leaving the party, require otherwise.
1.2. Following this, a debate, open to questions by all citizens, shall be held for three days.
1.3. The last stage shall be voting, which shall be held for four days.
1.4. Following the completion of one stage in an election, the next stage shall begin within twelve hours.
1.5. Should circumstances necessitate it, each stage may be shortened by up to one day. The length of a stage may not be changed once that stage has begun.
2. Voting
2.1. Voting for Prime Minister shall follow this process:
2.1.1. If there are two candidates, voters shall choose their preferred candidate and the candidate with a majority of votes shall be elected. If there are more than two candidates, voters may rank their preferred candidates. Their favorite candidate shall be ranked one, their second favorite two, and so on as far as they wish to do rankings. Each candidate may only be ranked once. Only a voter’s last preference(s) may be marked as an abstention.
2.1.2. First preference votes shall be counted initially. If a candidate achieves a majority after this, they shall be elected. Otherwise, the candidate with the least votes shall be eliminated and the second preferences of that candidate's voters shall be counted instead. This process of elimination and counting next preferences shall be repeated until one candidate has a majority of votes.
2.1.2.1. If no candidate can be eliminated or more than one can be eliminated, the second preferences of all voters shall take the place of first preference ones. If a candidate has a majority of votes at this stage, they shall be elected. Otherwise, this process shall be repeated with each successive preference until it is possible to eliminate just one candidate.
2.1.2.2. If all of a voter's preferences have been eliminated, their ballot shall not be used in further counting.
2.1.2.3. Abstentions shall not be considered in determining whether or not a candidate has achieved a majority.
2.2. The voting process shall vary between general and midterm elections for seats in the House of Representatives.
2.2.1. In general elections, residents of the capital, states, and territories may rank their preferred candidates to fill the seats indicated in §E.2. Their favorite candidate shall be ranked one, their second favorite two, and so on as far as they wish to do rankings. Each candidate may only be ranked once. Only a voter’s last preference(s) may be marked as an abstention.
2.2.1.1. The total number of votes cast in each region divided by the number of seats allocated to that region shall determine how many votes a candidate is required to gain a seat representing it. If this is not a whole number, it shall be rounded to the nearest one. Abstentions shall not be considered when determining the total number of votes cast.
2.2.1.2. Each candidate who receives the required number of votes shall be elected.
2.2.1.2.1. In the first round, those candidates with the required number of votes in voters’ first preferences shall be elected. If any such candidate achieves more votes than required, then their surplus votes shall be transferred to their voters’ second preference candidates, or if these candidates have already been elected or eliminated, then to their third preference candidates and so on.
2.2.1.3. In the second round, if there are still unallocated seats and multiple candidates who have not yet been elected, the candidate(s) with the least votes shall automatically be eliminated. Votes for these candidate(s) shall be transferred to their voters’ second preference, third preference, or likewise ordered candidates until an unelected and uneliminated candidate exists to which the vote can be transferred. This round shall continue until all candidates have been elected or eliminated.
2.2.1.4. If all of a voter's preferences have been counted, their ballot shall not be used in further counting.
2.2.1.5. This process shall be repeated with the capital and each state or territory until the total number of seats allocated are filled. If any allocated seats cannot be filled, they shall be considered absent as indicated in §G.
2.2.2. In midterm elections, Union residents may cast their vote for a registered political party or an independent candidate.
2.2.2.1. Each party and each independent candidate shall be allocated seats according to the total number of votes cast divided by the number of available seats and this calculation shall determine how many votes a party or independent candidate needs to gain a seat. Abstentions shall not be considered in this calculation.
2.2.2.1.1. An independent candidate may not be allocated more than one seat in this process.
2.3. If for any reason, an election ends with no candidate holding a majority of the vote, whether by process of elimination or otherwise, another vote, following the same procedures and lasting one day, shall be held. If there is only one candidate in that contest, their seat shall be considered absent as indicated in §G.
2.4. If there is only one candidate for a position, voters must approve of that candidate with a simple majority in order for them to be elected.
3. Oversight
3.1. All stages of general and midterm elections shall be started, overseen, and run by the Speaker of the House of Representatives.
3.2. The Speaker shall be responsible for ensuring the citizens of the Union are informed of the start of each election stage, no later than twelve hours after each stage has begun. They must ensure all citizens are notified both by telegram and on the Union’s regional Discord servers.
3.3. If the Speaker is unable to perform these duties, the responsibility of doing so shall fall to the Deputy Speaker. If for whatever reason, the Deputy Speaker is unable to fulfill these duties either, the Founder shall be endowed with them.
4. General Elections
4.1. These shall be held to elect the Prime Minister and all capital, state, and territorial representatives in the House.
4.2. They shall begin on the first of March, July, and November.
5. Midterm Elections
5.1. These shall be held to elect the Union's representatives in the House.
5.2. They shall begin on the first of January, May, and September.
6. If an emergency election is held less than or equal to one month before a regularly scheduled election, the regularly scheduled election shall be canceled. Emergency elections for the House of Representatives must be for: all Union-wide seats, all capital, state, and territorial seats, and/or all seats in a regional constituency.

Existing Clause, §K.4.1
4.1. Only States may by law establish courts, all observant of due process and both state and federal law.
4.1.1. These courts may only try crimes which are illegal in that state, but not on a federal level. Only the Union High Court may try federal crimes.
4.1.2. Punishments for these crimes must be in line with the Union Constitution and may only remove privileges which exist within that state and not on a federal level.

New Clause, §K.4.1
4.1. Only States may by law establish courts, all observant of due process and both state and federal law.
4.1.1. These courts may only try crimes which are illegal in that state, but not on a federal level. Only the Union High Court may try federal crimes.
4.1.2. Punishments for these crimes must be consistent with the Union Constitution and may only remove privileges which exist within that state and not on a federal level.
4.1.3. State courts shall hold the power to judge legality, but only of laws passed within that state. They may not review the legality of the local constitution.


11
Consulates / Consulate of The Kingdom of Great Britain
« on: October 20, 2021, 08:10:02 am »




Official Consulate of The Kingdom of Great Britain to the Union of Force




12
Executive Orders / Re: Executive Actions
« on: October 08, 2021, 01:48:25 pm »
Fresh Presidential Elections in RGBN



With presidential elections in RGBN ending with no clear legal winner (despite the concession, which isn't legally valid), and turnout having fallen to historically low levels, I hereby call for fresh presidential elections in the State of RGBN, to begin at 7:00 PM GMT+1, on October 8th, 2021.

I do this under the authority given to me by the Constitution of RGBN to oversee elections, and by the authority given to me to protect the rights of its citizens.


13
Executive Orders / Re: Executive Actions
« on: September 15, 2021, 12:13:00 am »
Appointment of Caribou Island as Justice of the Court



Effective immediately, under the auspices of §G.6 of the Constitution, Caribou Island is appointed as a Justice of the Court.


14
Past Elections / Voting Results: Midterm Elections, September 2021
« on: September 12, 2021, 08:35:58 pm »
Voting Results: Midterm Elections, September 2021




Official Voting Results for the September 2021 Midterm Elections can be found here.


15
Executive Orders / Re: Executive Actions
« on: September 07, 2021, 04:40:29 pm »
Delegation of Foreign Affairs Powers to the Citizens Alliance of Democracy



Per §K.4 of the Constitution:

1. CAD shall be able to create and cancel diplomatic relations, including embassies, with any regions, subject to a few minor restrictions.
2. No embassy or diplomatic relationship shall be built with a region of extremist ideologies (such as fascism) or a region which the Union is at war with or has developed hostilities with.
3. CAD may exchange Ambassadors and Diplomats with other regions as representatives of CAD, but not of the Union.
4. CAD shall enter no inter-regional alliance without express approval from the Union Government.
5. CAD is authorized to develop its own foreign policy, taking the above restrictions into account.


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