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Topics - Renegalle

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1
Clubs / Clubs Policy
« on: October 21, 2020, 02:13:56 am »
General Club Rules and Guidelines



1. All citizens may create clubs by forming topics in this sub-forum for them.

2. Club topics must specify the leader of the club (if there is one) and whether the club is open to everyone or if people must be accepted into it. If the latter is the case, the topic must designate specific people who can accept new people into the club.

3. All clubs created must be in line with NationStates Terms of Service. No club shall be formed, for the purpose of or as part of its ideology, discrimination against anyone on the basis of race, sex, gender, sexual orientation, disability, national origin, or similar. All of these fall under Constitutional provisions allowing for the moderation of harassment, flaming, and complying with the terms of service of different platforms we use.

4. If all of a club's members no longer hold citizenship, the club shall be closed.



Official Club Status



1. All clubs, upon their initial creation, shall be considered unofficial. Clubs which receive official status shall be eligible for special perks, such as a Discord channel on the main server and the ability to get shout-outs in regional telegrams or other official mediums.

2. To receive official club status, a club must fulfill certain requirements. These shall be:

a. Membership - all official clubs must have at least 4 members and rosters of their members in their club threads.
b. Uniqueness - to receive official status, a club must be unique in a significant way from existing clubs.
c. No cults of personality - a club centered around a member(s) of the Union or its Discords shall not be eligible for official status.

3. In order to retain official club status, a club must fulfill additional requirements. These shall be:

a. Activity - in order to retain the status of 'official', a club must see at least 5 messages a week each from at least 3 different members.
b. Membership - official clubs must see net positive growth over the course of a month from their first recognition as an official club in order to retain official status. After this period, in order to retain their status, they must not drop below 4 members. All official clubs must additionally maintain up to date membership rosters in their club threads.
c. Follow the rules - if a particular club gets involved in a large number of rule violations, server rules or terms of service ones, their official status shall be revoked.

4. If a club loses official status for all reasons except 3c, they may regain it by getting 2 more members to join the club (above what they had prior to losing official status) and then be subject to status retention rules.

a. If a club loses its official status due to a violation of rule 3c and wishes to regain official status, it must petition the Minister of Culture or equivalent.


2
Constitutional Amendments / Amendment 27: September 2020 Reforms Act
« on: September 19, 2020, 09:48:46 am »
Amendment 27: September 2020 Reforms Act

Purpose: In order to ensure a better functioning region, this Act hereby amends the Constitution in such a manner so that democracy and citizen participation is increased, loopholes are done away with, and efficiency in government becomes the norm rather than the exception.

Existing Section, Article A: Citizenship

1. All nations in the Union are citizens.
2. Citizenship shall entitle nations to the rights outlined in Article B.
3. Citizenship may only be removed by the Court as a punishment following a criminal trial. Rights of Citizenship may be removed by the Court for the same reason, but only temporarily.
4. Citizenship shall only remain valid as long as the citizen's nation remains in the Union.
5. Citizens shall hold the sole power to remove a Representative and shall do so by holding a democratic vote in which a simple majority is required to remove them. A public hearing must be held prior to the vote.

New Section, Article A: Citizenship

1. All individuals in the Union are citizens.
2. Citizenship shall entitle individuals to the rights outlined in Article B.
3. Citizenship may only be removed by the Court as a punishment following a criminal trial. Rights of Citizenship may be removed by the Court for the same reason, but only temporarily.
4. Citizenship shall only remain valid as long as the citizen's nation remains in the Union.
5. Citizens who voted in the last election for House of Representatives in the territory which a Representative represents and who currently reside in that territory shall hold the sole power to remove a Representative from office. They shall do so by holding a democratic vote in which a simple majority of votes in favor of their removal, within 3 days, is required to remove them.
6. Citizens shall hold the power to force a vote in the House of Representatives on any proposed House Law or Constitutional Amendment. At least five citizens must sign a motion putting forward such a proposal, after which the House shall be obliged to hold a vote on the legislation within one week.

Existing Section, Article B: Rights of Citizenship

1. The right to freedom of speech and free expression of political views.
1.1. This right shall not allow citizens to circumvent rules put in place on any offsite venue, as long as these rules are solely for the prevention of spam, flaming, impersonation, doxxing, harassment, to comply with a platform's terms of service, or similar.
1.1.1. Doxxing is defined as publishing private or identifying information about an individual without their consent.
1.1.2. Harassment is defined as repeated or continuing contact serving no useful purpose except to create alarm, annoyance, or cause emotional distress.
1.1.3. Impersonation is defined as deliberately attempting to mislead people to believe that you are a government official or a person who is a candidate for elected office.
1.2. Government officials shall be subject to restrictions on this right as it pertains to the release of information which if released, could threaten the safety and security of the Union.
2. The right to freedom of the press.
3. The right to protest freely and petition the government for the redress of any grievances.
4. The right to a fair trial.
5. The right to run for government office.
5.1. If a candidate in any election fails to answer all questions asked to them by the Founder or Speaker of the House within the debate period, they shall be disqualified from that election.
6. No citizen shall have to answer for a crime committed prior to that act being made criminal.

New Section, Article B: Rights of Citizenship

1. The right to freedom of speech and free expression of political views.
1.1. This right shall not allow citizens to circumvent rules put in place on any offsite venue, as long as these rules are solely for the prevention of spam, flaming, impersonation, doxxing, harassment, to comply with a platform's terms of service, or similar.
1.1.1. Doxxing is defined as publishing private or identifying information about an individual without their consent.
1.1.2. Harassment is defined as repeated or continuing contact serving no useful purpose except to create alarm, annoyance, or cause emotional distress.
1.1.3. Impersonation is defined as deliberately attempting to mislead people to believe that you are a government official or a person who is a candidate for elected office.
1.2. Government officials shall be subject to restrictions on this right as it pertains to the release of information which if released, could threaten the safety and security of the Union.
2. The right to freedom of the press.
3. The right to protest freely and petition the government for the redress of any grievances.
4. The right to a fair trial.
5. The right to run for government office.
5.1. If a candidate in any election fails to answer all questions asked to them by the Founder or Speaker of the House within the debate period, they shall be disqualified from that election.
6. No citizen shall have to answer for a crime committed prior to that act being made criminal.
7. No citizen shall be forced into military or government service without their clear consent.

Existing Section, Article C: The Cabinet

1. The Founder of Force shall be the Union's head of state and the Prime Minister of Force shall be the Union's head of government.
1.1. The Founder shall be responsible for maintaining stability, overseeing the Cabinet, and stepping in to lead the Cabinet should the need arise.
1.2. The Prime Minister shall be responsible for actively leading the Union and Cabinet.
2. The Prime Minister shall appoint the Cabinet and have the power to remove any of its members, except for the Founder. They shall be responsible for, at minimum, appointing ministers charged with foreign affairs, internal affairs, communications, and culture.
2.1. A minister shall be responsible for maintaining existing diplomatic relationships and forging new ones, overseeing the signing of treaties, and ensuring The Force Flyer is distributed to all of them.
2.2. A minister shall be responsible for overseeing domestic matters, including recruitment, and ensuring new members of the Union understand how the government works and know about all the opportunities available to them.
2.3. A minister shall be responsible for publishing The Force Flyer on a monthly basis and producing any other official publications and documents.
2.4. A minister shall be responsible for creating and running events for citizens of the Union to participate in, continuing old and forging new traditions, and recording the history of the Union.
2.5. All members of the Cabinet may appoint deputies to assist them in their duties. If any deputy is delegated power or responsibilities through the administration of a formal oath affirming this, they shall be considered a government official.
3. Any military or intelligence forces within the Union shall be considered under the supreme command and authority of the Founder and Prime Minister.
4. The Prime Minister can appoint a Deputy Prime Minister to help oversee the ministries responsible for foreign affairs, internal affairs, communications, and culture.
4.1. The Prime Minister can dismiss the Deputy Prime Minister at any time for any reason.
4.2. The Prime Minister is held accountable for the Deputy Prime Minister's actions, and thus the Deputy Prime Minister is expected to be as professional as the Prime Minister.

New Section, Article C: The Cabinet

1. The Founder of Force shall be the Union's head of state and the Prime Minister of Force shall be the Union's head of government.
1.1. The Founder shall be responsible for maintaining stability, overseeing the Cabinet, and stepping in to lead the Cabinet should the need arise.
1.2. The Prime Minister shall be responsible for actively leading the Union and Cabinet.
2. The Prime Minister shall appoint the Cabinet and have the power to remove any of its members, except for the Founder. They shall be responsible for, at minimum, appointing ministers charged with foreign affairs, internal affairs, communications, and culture.
2.1. A minister shall be responsible for maintaining existing diplomatic relationships and forging new ones, overseeing the signing of treaties, and ensuring The Force Flyer is distributed to all of them.
2.2. A minister shall be responsible for overseeing domestic matters, including recruitment, and ensuring new members of the Union understand how the government works and know about all the opportunities available to them.
2.3. A minister shall be responsible for publishing The Force Flyer on a monthly basis and producing any other official publications and documents.
2.4. A minister shall be responsible for creating and running events for citizens of the Union to participate in, continuing old and forging new traditions, and recording the history of the Union.
2.5. All members of the Cabinet may appoint deputies to assist them in their duties. If any deputy is delegated power or responsibilities through the administration of a formal oath affirming this, they shall be considered a government official.
3. Any military or intelligence forces within the Union shall be considered under the supreme command and authority of the Founder and Prime Minister.
4. The Prime Minister can nominate a Deputy Prime Minister to help oversee the ministries. The House of Representatives shall be presented with that nominee and must hold a vote lasting three days, until all House Representatives have voted, or until a majority of House members have approved or rejected the nominee. If the nominee is rejected, the Prime Minister may present a new nominee and restart the process.
4.1. The Prime Minister can dismiss the Deputy Prime Minister at any time for any reason.
4.2. The Prime Minister is held accountable for the Deputy Prime Minister's actions, and thus the Deputy Prime Minister is expected to be as professional as the Prime Minister.
5. The Prime Minister shall not have the authority to appoint a non-citizen to a cabinet position or otherwise.

Existing Section, Article E: The House of Representatives

1. The House shall consist of Representatives from each region in the Union, proportional to the total number of World Assembly members in each region.
2. The total number of seats in the House of Representatives shall be decided at the start of every House election. Each region will be able to elect one Representative for every 5 World Assembly nations they have.
3. The House shall hold the power to pass and repeal laws.
4. The House may pass or repeal any of its laws with a simple majority vote by its members in favor of the change.
5. The House may hold impeachment proceedings against any government official, except House Representatives, Cabinet Ministers, and the Founder.
5.1. Any House member may initiate impeachment proceedings by writing articles of impeachment specifying the official to be impeached and the reasons for why they are being impeached. If these articles are seconded by another House Representative, they must be put to vote.
5.1.1. The Prime Minister and Justices shall require a 2/3 majority vote of the House to be impeached.
5.1.2. All other government officials, besides those excluded from impeachment in §E.6, shall require a simple majority vote to be impeached.
5.2. If the House passes articles of impeachment against any official other than a justice, those Articles of Impeachment shall go to the Justices for a vote on whether the reasons within those articles warrant removal from office. If the Justices vote with a simple majority in favor of removal, the official shall be removed from office.
5.2.1. In considering whether or not the articles warrant removal from office, the Justices must consider all factors: the specific circumstances, the opinion of the public on whether that official should be removed, and any other factors brought up in or related to the Articles of Impeachment. If the impeachment was for reasons other than breaking the law, the Justices must only consider those factors and not whether a law was broken, in choosing whether the official should be removed. Once they have come to a decision, the Chief Justice must write a detailed explanation of why they believe the official should or should not be removed from office.
5.3. If the House passes articles of impeachment against a justice, then those Articles of Impeachment shall go to the citizens for a vote on whether the reasons within those articles warrant removal from office. If the citizens vote with a simple majority in favor of removal, the Justice shall be removed from office.
6. Any member of the House may propose an amendment to this Constitution. Once every member of the House has had the chance to review the Amendment, the Amendment may be seconded and subsequently, sent to vote. If the House votes in favor of it, with a simple majority, it will then be sent to the citizens for a vote, lasting 4 days. If the citizens approve of the amendment with a 2/3 majority, the amendment will be sent to the Founder for approval.
6.1. If the Founder signs the amendment, the Constitution shall be amended and the amendment shall become law. In signing it, the Founder may fix any spelling errors in the passed amendment and that fixed version shall become law.
6.2. If the Founder vetoes it, providing reasoning for their veto, it shall not become law, with no option to override the veto.

New Section, Article E: The House of Representatives

1. The House shall consist of Representatives from each region in the Union, proportional to the total number of World Assembly members in each region.
2. The total number of seats in the House of Representatives shall be decided at the start of every House election. Each region will be able to elect one Representative for every 5 World Assembly nations they have.
3. The House shall hold the power to pass and repeal laws.
4. The House may pass or repeal any of its laws with a simple majority vote by its members in favor of the change.
5. The House may hold impeachment proceedings against any government official, except House Representatives, Cabinet Ministers, and the Founder.
5.1. Any House member may initiate impeachment proceedings by writing articles of impeachment specifying the official to be impeached and the reasons for why they are being impeached. If these articles are seconded by another House Representative, they must be put to vote.
5.1.1. The Prime Minister and Justices shall require a 2/3 majority vote of the House to be impeached.
5.1.2. All other government officials, besides those excluded from impeachment in §E.6, shall require a simple majority vote to be impeached.
5.2. If the House passes articles of impeachment against any official other than a justice, those Articles of Impeachment shall go to the Justices for a vote on whether the reasons within those articles warrant removal from office. If the Justices vote with a simple majority in favor of removal, the official shall be removed from office.
5.2.1. In considering whether or not the articles warrant removal from office, the Justices must consider all factors: the specific circumstances, the opinion of the public on whether that official should be removed, and any other factors brought up in or related to the Articles of Impeachment. If the impeachment was for reasons other than breaking the law, the Justices must only consider those factors and not whether a law was broken, in choosing whether the official should be removed. Once they have come to a decision, the Chief Justice must write a detailed explanation of why they believe the official should or should not be removed from office.
5.3. If the House passes articles of impeachment against a justice, then those Articles of Impeachment shall go to the citizens for a vote on whether the reasons within those articles warrant removal from office. If the citizens vote with a simple majority in favor of removal within 3 days, the Justice shall be removed from office.
6. Any member of the House may propose an amendment to this Constitution. Once every member of the House has had the chance to review the Amendment, the Amendment may be seconded and subsequently, sent to vote. If the House votes in favor of it, with a simple majority, it will then be sent to the citizens, within one week, for a vote lasting 4 days. This vote shall be administered by the Speaker of the House, their Deputy, or a citizen to whom the responsibility is delegated if neither of the aforementioned are able to. If the citizens approve of the amendment with a 2/3 majority, the amendment will be sent to the Founder for approval.
6.1. If the Founder signs the amendment, the Constitution shall be amended and the amendment shall become law. In signing it, the Founder may fix any spelling, grammar, and formatting errors in the passed amendment and that fixed version shall become law.
6.2. If the Founder vetoes it, providing reasoning for their veto, it shall not become law, with no option to override the veto.

Existing Section, Article G: Absences

1. A government office is considered absent when:
1.1. The office holder has lost citizenship.
1.2. The office holder has not spoken or performed their duties on the NationStates website, Force forums, or Force Discord server in at least 1 week.
1.2.1. If a government official anticipates an absence this long, in order to keep their position, prior to the absence they must provide reasonable cause for it and designate another official in their area of government to take on their responsibilities. This shall not apply to the Court, who are subject to §G.4, regardless of the circumstances.
1.3. The office holder has resigned.
1.4. The office holder has been removed from office.
1.5. The office was left absent following an election.
2. In the case of an absence in the office of Prime Minister, the Deputy Prime Minister shall assume the position of Prime Minister. If there is no Deputy Prime Minister, or the Deputy Prime Minister chooses to not take the office, the Speaker of the House will become Prime Minister.
2.1. In the case of there being no Speaker of the House or them choosing not to take the office, the matter shall go to the House, who shall be responsible for choosing a new Prime Minister.
2.2. Any House Representative may nominate a member of the Cabinet or House for Prime Minister, provided that the nominee has agreed to their nomination. Both the nominations period and the subsequent vote shall last for 24 hours. The nominee with a majority of the vote shall become Prime Minister.
2.2.1. If no nominee receives a majority of the vote, a second vote shall be held in which only the two nominees with the highest vote totals remain. The nominee who receives a majority of the vote after 24 hours shall become Prime Minister.
2.3. If no nominations are made, an emergency election, following the same rules as a regular election, must be held.
3. In the case of an absence in the Cabinet, the Prime Minister must appoint a replacement within 7 days.
4. If all seats in the House of Representatives are vacant, an emergency election, following the same rules as a regular election, must be held if the next election for it is more than one month away.
5. In the case of an absence in the Court, the Founder must appoint a replacement within 5 days or choose to hold an emergency election for the position.
6. In the case of any other absence, unless otherwise specified by law, the office shall be considered vacant and no further action shall be taken.

New Section, Article G: Absences

1. A government office is considered absent when:
1.1. The office holder has lost citizenship.
1.2. The office holder has not spoken or performed their duties on the NationStates website, Force forums, or Force Discord server in at least 1 week.
1.2.1. If a government official anticipates an absence this long, in order to keep their position, prior to the absence they must provide reasonable cause for it and designate another official in their area of government to take on their responsibilities. This shall not apply to the Court, who are subject to §G.4, regardless of the circumstances.
1.3. The office holder has resigned.
1.4. The office holder has been removed from office.
1.5. The office was left absent following an election.
2. In addition to the above conditions, an office in the House of Representatives shall be considered absent when:
2.1. The nation with which the office holder was elected is no longer present in the region.

3. In the case of an absence in the office of Prime Minister, the Deputy Prime Minister shall assume the position of Prime Minister.
3.1. In the case that there is no Deputy Prime Minister or them choosing not to take the office of Prime Minister, the matter shall go to the House, who shall be responsible for choosing a new Prime Minister.
3.2. Any House Representative may nominate a member of the Cabinet or House for Prime Minister, provided that the nominee has agreed to their nomination. Both the nominations period and the subsequent vote shall last for 24 hours. The nominee with a majority of the vote shall become Prime Minister.
3.2.1. If no nominee receives a majority of the vote, a second vote shall be held in which only the two nominees with the highest vote totals remain. The nominee who receives a majority of the vote after 24 hours shall become Prime Minister.
3.3. If no nominations are made, an emergency election, following the same rules as a regular election, must be held.
4. In the case of an absence in the Cabinet, the Prime Minister must appoint a replacement within 7 days.
5. If all seats in the House of Representatives are vacant, an emergency election, following the same rules as a regular election, must be held if the next election for it is more than one month away.
6. In the case of an absence in the Court, the Founder must appoint a replacement within 5 days or choose to hold an emergency election for the position.
7. In the case of any other absence, unless otherwise specified by law, the office shall be considered vacant and no further action shall be taken.

Existing Section, Article H: Elections

1. Stages
1.1. Elections shall begin with candidacy declarations, which shall be open for 3 days.
1.2. Following this, a debate, open to questions by all citizens, shall be held for 3 days.
1.3. The last stage shall be voting, which shall be held for 4 days.
1.4. Following the completion of one stage in an election, the next stage shall begin within 12 hours.
1.5. Should circumstances necessitate it, each stage may be shortened by up to one day. The length of a stage may not be changed once that stage has begun.
2. Voting
2.1. If an election ends with no candidate achieving a majority, voting shall continue until one does. If that election has only one candidate, a fresh election shall be held.
2.2. All ranked choice voting shall follow this process:
2.2.1. If there are more than two candidates, voters may rank their preferred candidates. Their favorite candidate shall be ranked 1, their second favorite 2, and so on as far as they wish to do rankings. Each candidate may only be ranked once.
2.2.2. The candidate with the majority of votes shall be elected. Abstentions shall not be considered.
2.2.3. If no candidate achieves a majority, an instant runoff shall be triggered. The second preference of those who voted for a candidate other than the two with the most votes shall be counted, then their third preference, and so on until a candidate has a majority of votes.
2.2.3.1. If the number of votes for all candidates is at parity, the second preferences of all voters shall be counted. This shall be repeated with each lower preference until two candidates have higher vote tallies than the others. §H.2.2.3 shall then be followed as usual.
2.2.4. If all of a voter's preferences have been counted, their ballot shall not be used in further counting.
2.3. In elections for House Representatives, ballots shall allow residents of each territory to vote for or against each candidate running for that territory's seat(s). They may vote, at maximum, for as many candidates as there are available seats, as indicated by §E.2. The candidates with more votes for than against them shall be elected.
2.4. In elections for Court Justices, ballots shall allow citizens to vote for or against each candidate. They may vote, at maximum, for up to five candidates if there are at least that many candidates for the position. Otherwise, they may vote, at maximum, for up to three candidates. The candidates with more votes for than against them shall be elected.
3. Oversight
3.1. All stages of general and midterm elections shall be started, overseen, and run by the Speaker of the House of Representatives.
3.2. The Speaker shall be responsible for sending a telegram to all citizens of the Union's capital region and is urged to send one to each of its states, notifying them of the start of each election stage. They shall do the same on the Force Discord Server.
3.3. If the Speaker is unable to perform these duties, the responsibility of doing so shall fall to the Deputy Speaker. If for whatever reason, the Deputy Speaker is unable to fulfill these duties either, the Chief Justice shall be endowed with these responsibilities.
4. General Elections
4.1. These shall be held to elect the Prime Minister, all seats in the House of Representatives except for those from the capital territory, and all Court Justices.
4.2. They shall begin on the first of March, July, and November.
4.3. Elections for Prime Minister shall follow ranked choice voting procedures.
5. Midterm Elections
5.1. These shall be held to elect the capital territory's seats in the House of Representatives and all Court Justices.
5.2. They shall begin on the first of January, May, and September.
6. No emergency election for a vacant office shall conflict with a regularly scheduled election for that same office.

New Section, Article H: Elections

1. Stages
1.1. Elections shall begin with candidacy declarations, which shall be open for 3 days.
1.2. Following this, a debate, open to questions by all citizens, shall be held for 3 days.
1.3. The last stage shall be voting, which shall be held for 4 days.
1.4. Following the completion of one stage in an election, the next stage shall begin within 12 hours.
1.5. Should circumstances necessitate it, each stage may be shortened by up to one day. The length of a stage may not be changed once that stage has begun.
2. Voting
2.1. All ranked choice voting shall follow this process:
2.1.1. If there are more than two candidates, voters may rank their preferred candidates. Their favorite candidate shall be ranked 1, their second favorite 2, and so on as far as they wish to do rankings. Each candidate may only be ranked once.
2.1.2. First preference votes shall be counted initially. If a candidate achieves a majority after this, they shall be elected. Otherwise, the candidate with the least votes shall be eliminated and the second preferences of that candidate's voters shall be counted instead. This process of elimination and counting next preferences shall be repeated until one candidate has a majority of votes.
2.1.2.1. If no candidate can be eliminated or more than one can be eliminated, the second preferences of all voters shall take the place of first preference ones. If a candidate has a majority of votes at this stage, they shall be elected. Otherwise, this process shall be repeated with each successive preference until it is possible to eliminate just one candidate.
2.1.2.2. If all of a voter's preferences have been eliminated, their ballot shall not be used in further counting.
2.1.2.3. Abstentions shall not be considered in determining whether or not a candidate has achieved a majority.
2.1.2.4. If for any reason, this process of elimination does not result in a candidate holding a majority of the vote, another vote, following the same procedures and lasting only one day, shall be held.

2.2. In elections for House Representatives, ballots shall allow residents of each territory to vote for or against each candidate running for that territory's seat(s). They may vote, at maximum, for as many candidates as there are available seats, as indicated by §E.2. The candidates with more votes for than against them shall be elected.
2.3. In elections for Court Justices, ballots shall allow citizens to vote for or against each candidate. They may vote, at maximum, for up to five candidates if there are at least that many candidates for the position. Otherwise, they may vote, at maximum, for up to three candidates. The candidates with more votes for than against them shall be elected.
3. Oversight
3.1. All stages of general and midterm elections shall be started, overseen, and run by the Speaker of the House of Representatives.
3.2. The Speaker shall be responsible for sending a telegram to all citizens of the Union's capital region and is urged to send one to each of its states, notifying them of the start of each election stage. They shall do the same on the Force Discord Server.
3.3. If the Speaker is unable to perform these duties, the responsibility of doing so shall fall to the Deputy Speaker. If for whatever reason, the Deputy Speaker is unable to fulfill these duties either, the Chief Justice shall be endowed with these responsibilities.
4. General Elections
4.1. These shall be held to elect the Prime Minister, all seats in the House of Representatives except for those from the capital territory, and all Court Justices.
4.2. They shall begin on the first of March, July, and November.
4.3. Elections for Prime Minister shall follow ranked choice voting procedures.
5. Midterm Elections
5.1. These shall be held to elect the capital territory's seats in the House of Representatives and all Court Justices.
5.2. They shall begin on the first of January, May, and September.
6. No emergency election for a vacant office shall conflict with a regularly scheduled election for that same office.

Existing Section, Article I: Illegal Activities

1. Treason
1.1. Attempting to or successfully undermining the legitimate government of the Union or its allies.
1.2. Attempting to or successfully harming the people of the Union or the people of the Union's allies.
1.3. Attempting to or successfully raiding or illegally occupying a territory of the Union of Force or its allies.
2. Espionage
2.1. Attempting to or successfully accessing sensitive information without prior approval from the Founder or Prime Minister.
2.2. Attempting to or successfully sharing sensitive information without prior approval from the Founder or Prime Minister.
3. Conspiracy
3.1. Collaborating with one or more other citizens to commit any of the activities in this Article.
3.2. Collaborating with one or more foreign nationals to commit any of the activities in this Article.
3.3. Collaborating with a mix of citizens and foreign nationals to commit any of the activities in this Article.
4. Voting Fraud
4.1. Attempting to or successfully undermining the validity of an election through the creation of multiple accounts.
4.2. Attempting to or successfully undermining the validity of an election, referendum, or vote of any other kind by bringing in nations to vote for one or more specific candidates or ideas.
4.3. Attempting to or successfully undermining the validity of an election by means of something other than that mentioned in §I.4.1 and §I.4.2.
5. Malfeasance and Nonfeasance
5.1. Malfeasance shall be defined as wrongdoing or misconduct by a government official.
5.2. Nonfeasance shall be defined as a failure to perform one's responsibilities in any government office.

New Section, Article I: Illegal Activities

1. Treason
1.1. Attempting to or successfully undermining the legitimate government of the Union or its allies.
1.2. Attempting to or successfully harming the people of the Union or the people of the Union's allies.
1.3. Attempting to or successfully raiding or illegally occupying a territory of the Union of Force or its allies.
2. Espionage
2.1. Attempting to or successfully accessing sensitive information without prior approval from the Founder or Prime Minister.
2.2. Attempting to or successfully sharing sensitive information without prior approval from the Founder or Prime Minister.
3. Conspiracy
3.1. Collaborating with one or more other citizens to commit any of the activities in this Article.
3.2. Collaborating with one or more foreign nationals to commit any of the activities in this Article.
3.3. Collaborating with a mix of citizens and foreign nationals to commit any of the activities in this Article.
4. Voting Fraud
4.1. Attempting to or successfully undermining the validity of an election, referendum, or vote of any kind through the creation of multiple accounts.
4.2. Attempting to or successfully undermining the validity of an election, referendum, or vote of any other kind by bringing in nations to vote for one or more specific candidates or ideas.
4.3. Attempting to or successfully undermining the validity of an election, referendum, or vote of any kind by means of something other than that mentioned in §I.4.1 and §I.4.2.
5. Perjury
5.1. Lying or willfully deceiving a member of the Court or Jury during a trial or through the providing of fake or manipulated evidence.

6. Nonfeasance and Malfeasance
6.1. Nonfeasance shall be defined as a failure to perform one's responsibilities in any government office.
6.2. Malfeasance shall be defined as violating the Constitution or any other binding law in a manner other than specified in the preceding clauses.

Existing Article, Article J: Punishments

1. The crimes of treason and espionage may be punished with:
1.1. Removal of citizenship
1.2. Temporary removal of the ability to vote; for a maximum of 2 years.
1.3. Temporary removal of the right to run for public office; for a maximum of 2 years.
2. The crimes of voting fraud and malfeasance may be punished with:
2.1. Temporary removal of the ability to vote; for a maximum of 1 year.
2.2. Temporary removal of the right to hold or run for public office; for a maximum of 2 years.
3. The crime of nonfeasance may be punished with:
3.1. Temporary removal of the right to hold or run for public office; for a maximum of 6 months.
4. The crime of conspiracy to commit treason or espionage may be punished with:
4.1. Removal of citizenship
4.2. Temporary removal of the ability to vote; for a maximum of 1 year.
4.3. Temporary removal of the right to hold or run for public office; for a maximum of 1 year.
5. The crime of conspiracy to commit voting fraud or malfeasance may be punished with:
5.1. Temporary removal of the ability to vote; for a maximum of 6 months.
5.2. Temporary removal of the right to hold or run for public office; for a maximum of 1 year.
6. The crime of conspiracy to commit nonfeasance may be punished with:
6.1. Temporary removal of the right to hold or run for public office; for a maximum of 3 months.

New Article, Article J: Punishments

1. The crimes of treason and espionage may be punished with:
1.1. Removal of citizenship
1.2. Temporary removal of the ability to vote; for a maximum of 2 years.
1.3. Temporary removal of the right to hold or run for public office; for a maximum of 2 years.
2. The crimes of voting fraud and malfeasance may be punished with:
2.1. Temporary removal of the ability to vote; for a maximum of 1 year.
2.2. Temporary removal of the right to hold or run for public office; for a maximum of 2 years.
3. The crime of nonfeasance may be punished with:
3.1. Temporary removal of the right to hold or run for public office; for a maximum of 6 months.
4. The crimes of perjury and conspiracy to commit perjury may be punished with:
4.1. Temporary removal of the ability to participate as a witness or provider of evidence in any trial; for a maximum of 1 year.
4.2. Temporary removal of the ability to vote; for a maximum of 6 months.

5. The crime of conspiracy to commit treason or espionage may be punished with:
5.1. Removal of citizenship
5.2. Temporary removal of the ability to vote; for a maximum of 1 year.
5.3. Temporary removal of the right to hold or run for public office; for a maximum of 1 year.
6. The crime of conspiracy to commit voting fraud or malfeasance may be punished with:
6.1. Temporary removal of the ability to vote; for a maximum of 6 months.
6.2. Temporary removal of the right to hold or run for public office; for a maximum of 1 year.
7. The crime of conspiracy to commit nonfeasance may be punished with:
7.1. Temporary removal of the right to hold or run for public office; for a maximum of 3 months.


3
Elections / Voting Results: Midterm Elections, September 2020
« on: September 11, 2020, 09:45:08 pm »
Voting Results: Midterm Elections, September 2020




Official Voting Results for the September 2020 Midterm Elections can be found here.


4
Consulates / Consulate of Freedomanica
« on: August 01, 2020, 01:23:50 am »
This shall serve as the official Consulate of the region Freedomanica to the Union of Force and its Territories.

5
Past Elections / Voting Results: General Elections, July 2020
« on: July 11, 2020, 02:52:10 pm »
Voting Results: General Elections, July 2020




Official Voting Results for the July 2020 General Elections can be found here.


6
Your Honor, Mr. Chief Justice:

§G.1.1 of the Constitution specifies that government offices are vacant when a nation loses citizenship. However, the recent appointment of Tyjarvustivdorker, who never held citizenship appears to challenge the way in which this works. The questions I wish to pose to the Court today is, based upon that and any other parts of the Constitution:
Is Tyjarvustivdorker Prime Minister now because he was DPM or did he lose the position of DPM immediately after being appointed due to lacking citizenship, making the Speaker of the House Prime Ministers?
If Tyjarvustivdorker is Prime Minister, since they lack citizenship, would it be legal to remove them by means of an Executive Order?

Thank you for your time.

7
Formation of an Official Moderation Team



Good day,

A recent incident in our Union, involving the banning of Libertatis Regalis, has caused us to re-evaluate our moderation procedures.

Up until now, we have relied on a combination of high level officials (myself and other Cabinet members) as well as a few trusted advisors, to make decisions regarding moderation. However, due to this incident and feedback from other regions in regards to it, we have realized that this model is not sustainable. Therefore, I have decided to establish an independent moderation team, separate from government. Government officials may be members of this team, but their membership in government shall and must not be linked to their role in moderation.

The moderation team would be tasked with, among other things: moderating our offsite platforms (including Discord servers, potentially forums, and game servers, should we come to possess any), evaluating complaints about specific members who have committed serious rule violations or violations of any platform's terms of service (ideally a specific team would handle this if the moderation team grew large enough), and masking new members, modifying channels and permissions, etc.

I am looking for people who are active, impartial, and have good judgement to form this team. If you believe you satisfy these qualifications and wish to be considered for membership, please fill out the following application:



Full Discord Username (including #xxxx):
Weekly Time Spent on Discord (in hours; give your best estimate):
Qualifications (non-government related; must be related to administration or moderation work):
Why you believe you would be an effective and impartial moderator:
Anything else you would like to add:



8
Constitutional Amendments / Amendment 25: The Territorial Reform Act
« on: June 24, 2020, 02:50:17 am »
Amendment 25: The Territorial Reform Act

Purpose: In order to reform the territories to ensure harmony within the Union.

Existing Article: Article C: The Cabinet

1. The Founder of Force shall be the Union's head of state and the Prime Minister of Force shall be the Union's head of government.

1.1. The Founder shall be responsible for maintaining stability, overseeing the Cabinet, and stepping in to lead the Cabinet should the need arise.
1.2. The Prime Minister shall be responsible for actively leading the Union and Cabinet.

2. The Prime Minister shall appoint the Cabinet and have the power to remove any of its members, except for the Founder. They shall be responsible for, at minimum, appointing ministers charged with foreign affairs, internal affairs, communications, and culture.

2.1. A minister shall be responsible for maintaining existing diplomatic relationships and forging new ones, overseeing the signing of treaties, and ensuring The Force Flyer is distributed to all of them.
2.2. A minister shall be responsible for overseeing domestic matters, ensuring new members of the Union understand how the government works and know about all the opportunities available to them, and working to improve territories.
2.3. A minister shall be responsible for publishing The Force Flyer on a monthly basis and producing any other official publications and documents.
2.4. A minister shall be responsible for creating and running events for citizens of the Union to participate in, continuing old and forging new traditions, and recording the history of the Union.
2.5. All members of the Cabinet may appoint deputies to assist them in their duties. If any deputy is delegated power or responsibilities through the administration of a formal oath affirming this, they shall be considered a government official.

3. Any military or intelligence forces within the Union shall be considered under the supreme command and authority of the Founder and Prime Minister.
4. The Prime Minister can appoint a Deputy Prime Minister to help oversee the ministries responsible for foreign affairs, internal affairs, communications, and culture.

4.1. The Prime Minister can dismiss the Deputy Prime Minister at any time for any reason.
4.2. The Prime Minister is held accountable for the Deputy Prime Minister's actions, and thus the Deputy Prime Minister is expected to be as professional as the Prime Minister.

New Article, Article C: The Cabinet

1. The Founder of Force shall be the Union's head of state and the Prime Minister of Force shall be the Union's head of government.

1.1. The Founder shall be responsible for maintaining stability, overseeing the Cabinet, and stepping in to lead the Cabinet should the need arise.
1.2. The Prime Minister shall be responsible for actively leading the Union and Cabinet.

2. The Prime Minister shall appoint the Cabinet and have the power to remove any of its members, except for the Founder. They shall be responsible for, at minimum, appointing ministers charged with foreign affairs, internal affairs, communications, and culture.

2.1. A minister shall be responsible for maintaining existing diplomatic relationships and forging new ones, overseeing the signing of treaties, and ensuring The Force Flyer is distributed to all of them.
2.2. A minister shall be responsible for overseeing domestic matters, including recruitment, and ensuring new members of the Union understand how the government works and know about all the opportunities available to them., and working to improve territories.
2.3. A minister shall be responsible for publishing The Force Flyer on a monthly basis and producing any other official publications and documents.
2.4. A minister shall be responsible for creating and running events for citizens of the Union to participate in, continuing old and forging new traditions, and recording the history of the Union.
2.5. All members of the Cabinet may appoint deputies to assist them in their duties. If any deputy is delegated power or responsibilities through the administration of a formal oath affirming this, they shall be considered a government official.

3. Any military or intelligence forces within the Union shall be considered under the supreme command and authority of the Founder and Prime Minister.
4. The Prime Minister can appoint a Deputy Prime Minister to help oversee the ministries responsible for foreign affairs, internal affairs, communications, and culture.

4.1. The Prime Minister can dismiss the Deputy Prime Minister at any time for any reason.
4.2. The Prime Minister is held accountable for the Deputy Prime Minister's actions, and thus the Deputy Prime Minister is expected to be as professional as the Prime Minister.

Existing Article, Article D: Types of Law

1. Laws shall exist in a hierarchical manner, so that some are more important than others.

2. Constitutional Law
2.1. This Constitution shall function as the highest level of law.

3. House Law
3.1. The laws passed by the House of Representatives shall function as the second highest level of law and can do anything that does not contradict the Constitution.

4. Executive Law
4.1. Any Executive Actions issued by the Founder or Prime Minister shall have the power to do anything except contradict, amend, or suspend the Constitution or House Law.

5. Cabinet Law
5.1. Any orders issued by the Cabinet. These orders shall have the power to do anything that does not contradict the Constitution, House Law, or Executive Law.

6. Court Law
6.1. These are all official actions of the Court. These official actions constitute handing down a punishment following a guilty verdict, declaring a law to be illegal, and clarifying an existing law.

7. Treaty Law
7.1. This constitutes all official treaties between Force and other regions. This is the lowest level of law.

New Article, Article D: Types of Law

1. Laws shall exist in a hierarchical manner, so that some are more important than others.

2. The Constitution
2.1. This Constitution shall function as the highest level of law.

3. House Law
3.1. The laws passed by the House of Representatives shall function as the second highest level of law and can do anything that does not contradict, amend (except by legal means), or suspend the Constitution.

4. Executive Law
4.1. Any Executive Orders may be issued by the Founder or Prime Minister which shall have the power to do anything except contradict, amend, or suspend the Constitution or House Law. In addition, they may not amend or suspend territorial law, but may contradict it as necessary in accordance with the powers given to them in this Constitution.

5. Treaty Law
5.1. This constitutes all official treaties between the Union and other sovereign governments and ordinances passed through the framework of these treaties. These may not contradict, amend, or suspend the Constitution, House Law, or Executive Law.

6. Territorial Law
6.1. The laws passed by each respective territory shall have the power to do anything within that territory which does not contradict, amend, or suspend the Constitution, House Law, Executive Law, or Treaties.


Existing Article, Article F: The Court

1. The Court shall consist of three or five justices.
2. At the beginning of each elected term, the Justices shall elect from among themselves a Chief Justice, who shall be responsible for ensuring that all responsibilities of the Court are upheld.
3. Any citizen may bring a case before the Court. The Justices collectively shall hold the responsibility of deciding whether or not to hear the case. They may only deny a case if it accuses the defendant of an action which is not illegal under any law or statute which applies to them in the Union or which has been found legal by precedent of another case that, except for those involved, was identical.
3.1. If a case brought to the Court indicts a justice, that justice must recuse themselves from involvement in all stages of that case. The Founder must appoint a special justice to temporarily fulfill their role for that case.
4. If the case shall be heard, the defendant is required to enter a plea of guilt, innocence, or no contest within a week of the case's acceptance.
4.1. A plea of guilt will skip a trial and move directly to sentencing.
4.2. A plea of innocence shall move forward with a trial.
4.3. A plea of no contest means that you do not admit guilt or innocence. The case will move before the justices for sentencing.
5. Each case in which a plea of not guilty was entered into the record shall be heard by a jury of 3 citizens selected at random by the Justices. The following are prohibited from serving on a jury: the defendant, the plaintiff, any citizen currently on trial or that has charges pending, any close personal friends, or any citizen who has served on a jury in the past 3 months.
6. A maximum of two court cases may be heard at one time, based upon the seriousness of the accusation(s). A queue shall be created if more than two cases are pending.
7. The Chief Justice shall oversee all trials except in the case of clause 3.1, in this case the Court may nominate any other justice not indicted or involved to lead the trial. Each trial shall consist of three stages: opening statements, witness testimony and/or the presentation of evidence, and closing arguments. The trial must be accessible for viewership by all citizens.
7.1. Opening statements shall consist of statements by both the plaintiff and the defendant presenting their respective arguments and an overview, from their perspectives, of the case at hand.
7.2. Witness testimony shall consist of bringing in outside individuals with firsthand knowledge of the alleged wrongdoing or lack thereof to testify. The presentation of evidence shall consist of the presentation of evidence to justify or refute the case at hand. Both the plaintiff and the defendant may choose to bring people or evidence forth for this stage.
7.3. Closing arguments shall consist of arguments by both the plaintiff and the defendant to reiterate their arguments. This may include refuting the testimony of witnesses or evidence from the previous stage. The defendant shall be entitled to deliver the last closing argument. Once closing arguments have concluded, the case shall move to the jury for deliberation.
8. The Jury shall have 3 days to determine, with a simple majority, whether the defendant is guilty or innocent. If they are considering voting guilty, a jury member must ensure that they have no reasonable doubt about that guilt before voting. Alongside their vote, they must provide fair reasoning for their decision.
9. The Justices collectively shall hold the responsibility of handing out a punishment to a defendant if they are found guilty or plead no contest.
9.1. Unanimous consensus among the justices (not including a recused justice, if there is one) shall be required to select a punishment for the guilty party. The Chief Justice must ensure consensus is reached on an appropriate punishment within 3 days of the guilty verdict. If a unanimous consensus cannot be reached after 3 days, a majority in favor shall suffice.
9.2. The punishment must be fair and appropriate for the crime committed, as outlined in Article J.
10. Any person convicted of a crime may petition the Court for a new trial based on new evidence.
10.1. On appeal, the Founder will appoint a special team of 3 justices to oversee the trial. This special team shall operate under the normal rules for a trial.
10.2. No jury member who served in the original trial shall be allowed to participate in a new trial.
11. The Justices shall hold the authority to judge the legality of each and every House Bill passed, and provide a public statement on its legality within a week of the bill being passed by the House.
11.1. All three Justices must present their individual verdict in the public statement.
11.2. If they judge a House Bill to be unconstitutional, they must suspend that law, in its entirety, providing a comprehensive legal argument to explain the reasons for its unconstitutionality.
11.3. A simple majority among the justices shall be required to find a law unconstitutional.
12. The Prime Minister may issue a pardon to anyone convicted of a crime, effectively canceling that person's sentence, provided that the person is not themselves, a close friend of theirs, or an associate in government. They may only issue a pardon once per term.

New Article, Article F: The High Court

1. The Court shall consist of three or five justices.
2. At the beginning of each elected term, the Justices shall elect from among themselves a Chief Justice, who shall be responsible for ensuring that all responsibilities of the Court are upheld.
3. Any citizen may bring a case before the Court. The Justices collectively shall hold the responsibility of deciding whether or not to hear the case. They may only deny a case if it accuses the defendant of an action which is not illegal under any law or statute which applies to them in the Union or which has been found legal by precedent of another case that, except for those involved, was identical.
3.1. If a case brought to the Court indicts a justice, that justice must recuse themselves from involvement in all stages of that case. The Founder must appoint a special justice to temporarily fulfill their role for that case.
4. If the case shall be heard, the defendant is required to enter a plea of guilt, innocence, or no contest within a week of the case's acceptance.
4.1. A plea of guilt will skip a trial and move directly to sentencing.
4.2. A plea of innocence shall move forward with a trial.
4.3. A plea of no contest means that you do not admit guilt or innocence. The case will move before the justices for sentencing.
5. Each case in which a plea of not guilty was entered into the record shall be heard by a jury of 3 citizens selected at random by the Justices. The following are prohibited from serving on a jury: the defendant, the plaintiff, any citizen currently on trial or that has charges pending, any close personal friends, or any citizen who has served on a jury in the past 3 months.
6. A maximum of two court cases may be heard at one time, based upon the seriousness of the accusation(s). A queue shall be created if more than two cases are pending.
7. The Chief Justice shall oversee all trials except in the case of clause 3.1, in this case the Court may nominate any other justice not indicted or involved to lead the trial. Each trial shall consist of three stages: opening statements, witness testimony and/or the presentation of evidence, and closing arguments. The trial must be accessible for viewership by all citizens.
7.1. Opening statements shall consist of statements by both the plaintiff and the defendant presenting their respective arguments and an overview, from their perspectives, of the case at hand.
7.2. Witness testimony shall consist of bringing in outside individuals with firsthand knowledge of the alleged wrongdoing or lack thereof to testify. The presentation of evidence shall consist of the presentation of evidence to justify or refute the case at hand. Both the plaintiff and the defendant may choose to bring people or evidence forth for this stage.
7.3. Closing arguments shall consist of arguments by both the plaintiff and the defendant to reiterate their arguments. This may include refuting the testimony of witnesses or evidence from the previous stage. The defendant shall be entitled to deliver the last closing argument. Once closing arguments have concluded, the case shall move to the jury for deliberation.
8. The Jury shall have 3 days to determine, with a simple majority, whether the defendant is guilty or innocent. If they are considering voting guilty, a jury member must ensure that they have no reasonable doubt about that guilt before voting. Alongside their vote, they must provide fair reasoning for their decision.
9. The Justices collectively shall hold the responsibility of handing out a punishment to a defendant if they are found guilty or plead no contest.
9.1. Unanimous consensus among the justices (not including a recused justice, if there is one) shall be required to select a punishment for the guilty party. The Chief Justice must ensure consensus is reached on an appropriate punishment within 3 days of the guilty verdict. If a unanimous consensus cannot be reached after 3 days, a majority in favor shall suffice.
9.2. The punishment must be fair and appropriate for the crime committed, as outlined in Article J.
10. Any person convicted of a crime may petition the Court for a new trial based on new evidence.
10.1. On appeal, the Founder will appoint a special team of 3 justices to oversee the trial. This special team shall operate under the normal rules for a trial.
10.2. No jury member who served in the original trial shall be allowed to participate in a new trial.
11. The Justices shall hold the sole authority to judge the legality of all House Laws (excluding Constitutional amendments) and Territorial Laws. They shall provide a public statement on the legality of each of these laws within a week of their passage. They shall also hold the authority to judge the legality of executive and treaty law, though they are not required to provide statements on their legality.
11.1. All Justices must present their individual verdict in a public statement.
11.2. A simple majority among the justices shall be required to find a law unconstitutional.
11.3. If they judge a law to be unconstitutional, they must suspend it, in its entirety, providing a comprehensive legal argument to explain the reasons for its unconstitutionality.
12. The Prime Minister may issue a pardon to anyone convicted of a crime, effectively canceling that person's sentence, provided that the person is not themselves, a close friend of theirs, or an associate in government. They may only issue a pardon once per term.

Existing Article, Article K: Territories

1. Force shall consist of territories, all subject to Force Law.

2. The Capital Territory shall be the seat of the Federal Government and be administered solely by it.
2.1. Force is the only capital territory.

3. States shall exist as semi-sovereign entities. Each of them may form their own governments with power over all matters, besides those of foreign relations and defense. The Federal Government may grant these restricted powers to a State Government at its discretion.
3.1. RGBN and Heart are the only states.

4. Provinces shall exist as semi-sovereign entities. They may be lead by a Governor, appointed by the Founder or Prime Minister, put under direct Federal Government control at the order of the same, or have their own government with whichever powers the Federal Government grants to them.
4.1. The Federal Government may create, integrate, or remove provinces at its discretion.

New Article, Article K: Territories

1. The Union shall consist of territories, all (except military occupations) subject to the Constitution, House Law,  Executive Law (where applicable), and Treaty Law.
1.1. All territories may by law establish courts.
1.1.1. These courts may only try crimes which are illegal in that territory, but not on a federal level. Only the Union High Court may try federal crimes.
1.1.2. Punishments for these crimes must be in line with the Union Constitution and may only remove privileges which exist within that territory and not on a federal level.

2. The Founder may create, remove, annex, combine, or disassociate any territories from the Union, except for the capital territory and states, at their discretion.

3. Territorial classifications (except those defined herein), with differing levels of sovereignty, may be created, modified, or removed at the discretion of the Founder or High Commissioner.
3.1. All territories, except the capital territory and states, may have their classifications modified at the discretion of the Founder. The capital territory and states may only have their classifications modified by an amendment to this Constitution.

4. The Founder may appoint and dismiss, at their discretion, a High Commissioner, who shall be charged with overseeing the affairs of the Union’s territories. This shall include coordinating inter-union functions, tending to any issues that the territories may encounter, and ensuring that the law is upheld within them.
4.1. Each State and any other territories where it is deemed necessary shall have a viceroy, nominated by the High Commissioner and approved by the Founder.
4.2. Each Viceroy shall act as the official Union Representative to that territory, tasked with routinely reporting to the High Commissioner on that territory’s activity, progress, and issues. They shall additionally be responsible for communicating to that territory important messages from the federal government, including the start of different stages in federal elections, voting on amendments, the release of The Force Flyer, and inter-union events.
4.3. Each Viceroy shall be the head of that territory’s military and intelligence forces (if they exist), unless otherwise tasked by order of the Founder or High Commissioner, and must be given access to that territory’s governmental meeting place(s).


5. The Capital Territory shall be the seat of the Federal Government and be administered solely by it.
5.1. Force is the only capital territory.

6. States shall exist as semi-sovereign entities. Each of them may form their own governments with power over all matters, except those concerning foreign relations and defense. The Founder or High Commissioner may grant these restricted powers to a State Government at their discretion.
6.1. RGBN and Heart are the only states.

7. Provinces shall exist as semi-sovereign entities. They may be led by a Governor, appointed by the Founder or Prime Minister, put under direct Federal Government control at the order of the same, or have their own governments with power over all matters, except those concerning foreign relations and defense.
4.1. The Federal Government may create, integrate, or remove provinces at its discretion.

8. Military occupations shall be a special classification of territory where residents shall not hold Union citizenship and where usual laws shall not apply. They shall be subject solely to the orders of the Founder or a Military Governor appointed by the Founder to oversee them.

9
Constitutional Amendments / Amendment 23
« on: May 24, 2020, 04:28:00 pm »
Amendment 23: Absence and Election Reform Act

Purpose: To solidify the way in which elections work, cover extraordinary circumstances, and create a better functioning system for when absences do occur.

Existing Article, Article E: The House of Representatives

1. The House shall consist of Representatives from each region in the Union, proportional to the total number of World Assembly members in each region.
2. The total number of seats in the House of Representatives shall be decided at the start of every House election. Each region will be able to elect one Representative for every 5 World Assembly nations they have. If a region does not fill all of its seats in an election, the vacant seats will not be considered absent and thus, not subject to Article G of this Constitution.
3. The House shall hold the power to pass and repeal laws.
4. The House may pass or repeal any of its laws with a simple majority vote by its members in favor of the change.
5. The House may override an Executive Order from the Prime Minister with a 2/3 majority vote by its members in favor of the change.
6. The House may hold impeachment proceedings against any government official, except House Representatives, Cabinet Ministers, and the Founder.
6.1. Any House member may initiate impeachment proceedings by writing articles of impeachment specifying the official to be impeached and the reasons for why they are being impeached. If these articles are seconded by another House Representative, they must be put to vote.
6.1.1. The Prime Minister and Justices shall require a 2/3 majority vote of the House to be impeached.
6.1.2. All other government officials, besides those excluded from impeachment in §E.6, shall require a simple majority vote to be impeached.
6.2. If the House passes articles of impeachment against any official other than a justice, those Articles of Impeachment shall go to the Justices for a vote on whether the reasons within those articles warrant removal from office. If the Justices vote with a simple majority in favor of removal, the official shall be removed from office.
6.2.1. In considering whether or not the articles warrant removal from office, the Justices must consider all factors: the specific circumstances, the opinion of the public on whether that official should be removed, and any other factors brought up in or related to the Articles of Impeachment. If the impeachment was for reasons other than breaking the law, the Justices must only consider those factors and not whether a law was broken, in choosing whether the official should be removed. Once they have come to a decision, the Chief Justice must write a detailed explanation of why they believe the official should or should not be removed from office.
6.3. If the House passes articles of impeachment against a justice, then those Articles of Impeachment shall go to the citizens for a vote on whether the reasons within those articles warrant removal from office. If the citizens vote with a simple majority in favor of removal, the Justice shall be removed from office.
7. Any member of the House may propose an amendment to this Constitution. Once every member of the House has had the chance to review the Amendment, the Amendment may be seconded and subsequently, sent to vote. If the House votes in favor of it, with a simple majority, it will then be sent to the citizens for a vote, lasting 4 days. If the citizens approve of the amendment with a 2/3 majority, the amendment will be sent to the Founder for approval.
7.1. If the Founder signs the amendment, the Constitution shall be amended and the amendment shall become law. In signing it, the Founder may fix any spelling errors in the passed amendment and that fixed version shall become law.
7.2. If the Founder vetoes it, providing reasoning for their veto, it shall not become law, with no option to override the veto.

New Article, Article E: The House of Representatives

1. The House shall consist of Representatives from each region in the Union, proportional to the total number of World Assembly members in each region.
2. The total number of seats in the House of Representatives shall be decided at the start of every House election. Each region will be able to elect one Representative for every 5 World Assembly nations they have.
3. The House shall hold the power to pass and repeal laws.
4. The House may pass or repeal any of its laws with a simple majority vote by its members in favor of the change.
5. The House may hold impeachment proceedings against any government official, except House Representatives, Cabinet Ministers, and the Founder.
5.1. Any House member may initiate impeachment proceedings by writing articles of impeachment specifying the official to be impeached and the reasons for why they are being impeached. If these articles are seconded by another House Representative, they must be put to vote.
5.1.1. The Prime Minister and Justices shall require a 2/3 majority vote of the House to be impeached.
5.1.2. All other government officials, besides those excluded from impeachment in §E.6, shall require a simple majority vote to be impeached.
5.2. If the House passes articles of impeachment against any official other than a justice, those Articles of Impeachment shall go to the Justices for a vote on whether the reasons within those articles warrant removal from office. If the Justices vote with a simple majority in favor of removal, the official shall be removed from office.
5.2.1. In considering whether or not the articles warrant removal from office, the Justices must consider all factors: the specific circumstances, the opinion of the public on whether that official should be removed, and any other factors brought up in or related to the Articles of Impeachment. If the impeachment was for reasons other than breaking the law, the Justices must only consider those factors and not whether a law was broken, in choosing whether the official should be removed. Once they have come to a decision, the Chief Justice must write a detailed explanation of why they believe the official should or should not be removed from office.
5.3. If the House passes articles of impeachment against a justice, then those Articles of Impeachment shall go to the citizens for a vote on whether the reasons within those articles warrant removal from office. If the citizens vote with a simple majority in favor of removal, the Justice shall be removed from office.
6. Any member of the House may propose an amendment to this Constitution. Once every member of the House has had the chance to review the Amendment, the Amendment may be seconded and subsequently, sent to vote. If the House votes in favor of it, with a simple majority, it will then be sent to the citizens for a vote, lasting 4 days. If the citizens approve of the amendment with a 2/3 majority, the amendment will be sent to the Founder for approval.
6.1. If the Founder signs the amendment, the Constitution shall be amended and the amendment shall become law. In signing it, the Founder may fix any spelling errors in the passed amendment and that fixed version shall become law.
6.2. If the Founder vetoes it, providing reasoning for their veto, it shall not become law, with no option to override the veto.

Existing Article, Article G: Absences

1. A government office is considered absent when:
1.1. The office holder has lost citizenship.
1.2. The office holder has not spoken or performed their duties on the NationStates website, Force forums, or Force Discord server in at least 1 week.
1.2.1. If a government official anticipates an absence this long, in order to keep their position, prior to the absence they must provide reasonable cause for it and designate another official in their area of government to take on their responsibilities. This shall not apply to the House of Representatives or Court, who are subject to §G.2, regardless of the circumstances.
1.3. The office holder has resigned.
1.4. The office holder has been removed from office.
2. In the case of an absence in the office of Prime Minister, the Deputy Prime Minister shall assume the position of Prime Minister. If there is no Deputy Prime Minister, or the Deputy Prime Minister chooses to not take the office, the Speaker of the House will become Prime Minister.
2.1. In the case of there being no Speaker of the House or them choosing not to take the office, the matter shall go to the House, who shall be responsible for choosing a new Prime Minister.
2.2. Any House Representative may nominate a member of the Cabinet or House for Prime Minister, provided that the nominee has agreed to their nomination. Both the nominations period and the subsequent vote shall last for 24 hours. The nominee with a majority of the vote shall become Prime Minister.
2.2.1. If no nominee receives a majority of the vote, a second vote shall be held in which only the two nominees with the highest vote totals remain. The nominee who receives a majority of the vote after 24 hours shall become Prime Minister.
2.3. If no nominations are made, an emergency election, following the same rules as a regular election, must be held.
3. In the case of an absence of a House Representative or a member of the Court, an emergency election, following the same rules as a regular election, must be held if the next election for that position is more than one month away. Otherwise the Founder must appoint a replacement within 5 days.
4. In the case of an absence in the Cabinet, the Prime Minister must appoint a replacement within 7 days.

New Article, Article G: Absences

1. A government office is considered absent when:
1.1. The office holder has lost citizenship.
1.2. The office holder has not spoken or performed their duties on the NationStates website, Force forums, or Force Discord server in at least 1 week.
1.2.1. If a government official anticipates an absence this long, in order to keep their position, prior to the absence they must provide reasonable cause for it and designate another official in their area of government to take on their responsibilities. This shall not apply to the Court, whose members are subject to §G.4, regardless of circumstances.
1.3. The office holder has resigned.
1.4. The office holder has been removed from office.
1.5. The office was left absent following an election.
2. In the case of an absence in the office of Prime Minister, the Deputy Prime Minister shall assume the position of Prime Minister. If there is no Deputy Prime Minister, or the Deputy Prime Minister chooses to not take the office, the Speaker of the House will become Prime Minister.
2.1. In the case of there being no Speaker of the House or them choosing not to take the office, the matter shall go to the House, who shall be responsible for choosing a new Prime Minister.
2.2. Any House Representative may nominate a member of the Cabinet or House for Prime Minister, provided that the nominee has agreed to their nomination. Both the nominations period and the subsequent vote shall last for 24 hours. The nominee with a majority of the vote shall become Prime Minister.
2.2.1. If no nominee receives a majority of the vote, a second vote shall be held in which only the two nominees with the highest vote totals remain. The nominee who receives a majority of the vote after 24 hours shall become Prime Minister.
2.3. If no nominations are made, an emergency election, following the same rules as a regular election, must be held.
3. In the case of an absence in the Cabinet, the Prime Minister must appoint a replacement within 7 days.
4. If all seats in the House of Representatives are vacant, an emergency election, following the same rules as a regular election, must be held if the next election for it is more than one month away.
5. In the case of an absence in the Court, the Founder must appoint a replacement within 5 days or choose to hold an emergency election for the position.
6. In the case of any other absence, unless otherwise specified by law, the office shall be considered vacant and no further action shall be taken.

Existing Article, Article H: Elections

1. Election Procedures
1.1. The election shall begin with candidacy declarations, which shall be open for 3 days.
1.2. Following this, a debate, open to questions by all citizens, shall be held for 3 days.
1.3. The last stage shall be voting, which shall be held for 4 days.
1.4. If an election ends with no candidate achieving a majority, voting shall continue until one does. If that election has only one candidate, a fresh election shall be held.
1.5. All stages of elections for Prime Minister, House of Representatives, and Court shall be started by and overseen by the Speaker of the House of Representatives.
1.5.1. The Speaker shall be responsible for sending a telegram to all citizens of the Union's capital region and is urged to send one to each of its states, notifying them of the start of each election stage. They shall do the same on the Force Discord Server. This, however, is optional.
1.5.2. If the Speaker is not able to perform these duties, the responsibility of doing so shall fall to the Deputy Speaker. If for whatever reason, the Deputy Speaker is unable to fulfill these duties either, the Chief Justice shall be endowed with these responsibilities.
1.6. Following the completion of one stage in an election, the next stage shall begin within 12 hours.
2. Prime Minister Elections
2.1. Elections shall start on the first of January, April, July, and October.
2.2. If there are more than two candidates, voters may rank their preferred candidates. Their favorite candidate shall be ranked 1, their second favorite 2, and so on as far as they wish to do rankings.
2.3. The candidate with the majority of votes shall be elected. Abstentions shall not be considered.
2.3.1. If no candidate achieves a majority, an instant runoff shall be triggered. The second preference of those who voted for a candidate other than the two with the most votes shall be counted and so on until a candidate has a majority of votes.
2.3.2. If all of a voter's preferences have been counted, their ballot shall not be used in further counting.
3. House Elections
3.1. Elections shall start on the first of January, April, July, and October.
3.2. Force and each of its territories with at least 5 World Assembly nations shall hold House Elections.
3.3. Each territory shall elect the candidates with the most votes to the seats available for that territory as indicated in §E.2.
4. Court Elections
4.1. The three Justices shall be elected.
4.2. Elections shall start on the first of March, June, September, and December.

New Article, Article H: Elections

1. Stages
1.1. Elections shall begin with candidacy declarations, which shall be open for 3 days.
1.2. Following this, a debate, open to questions by all citizens, shall be held for 3 days.
1.3. The last stage shall be voting, which shall be held for 4 days.
1.4. Following the completion of one stage in an election, the next stage shall begin within 12 hours.
1.5. Should circumstances necessitate it, each stage may be shortened by up to one day. The length of a stage may not be changed once that stage has begun.
2. Voting
2.1. If an election ends with no candidate achieving a majority, voting shall continue until one does. If that election has only one candidate, a fresh election shall be held.
2.2. All ranked choice voting shall follow this process:
2.2.1. If there are more than two candidates, voters may rank their preferred candidates. Their favorite candidate shall be ranked 1, their second favorite 2, and so on as far as they wish to do rankings. Each candidate may only be ranked once.
2.2.2. The candidate with the majority of votes shall be elected. Abstentions shall not be considered.
2.2.3. If no candidate achieves a majority, an instant runoff shall be triggered. The second preference of those who voted for a candidate other than the two with the most votes shall be counted, then their third preference, and so on until a candidate has a majority of votes.
2.2.3.1. If the number of votes for all candidates is at parity, the second preferences of all voters shall be counted. This shall be repeated with each lower preference until two candidates have higher vote tallies than the others. §H.2.2.3 shall then be followed as usual.
2.2.4. If all of a voter's preferences have been counted, their ballot shall not be used in further counting.
2.3. In elections for House Representatives, ballots shall allow residents of each territory to vote for or against each candidate running for that territory’s seat(s). They may vote, at maximum, for as many candidates as there are available seats, as indicated by §E.2. The candidates with more votes for than against them shall be elected.
2.4. In elections for Court Justices, ballots shall allow citizens to vote for or against each candidate. They may vote, at maximum, for up to five candidates if there are at least that many candidates for the position. Otherwise, they may vote, at maximum, for up to three candidates. The candidates with more votes for than against them shall be elected.
3. Oversight
3.1. All stages of general and midterm elections shall be started, overseen, and run by the Speaker of the House of Representatives.
3.2. The Speaker shall be responsible for sending a telegram to all citizens of the Union's capital region and is urged to send one to each of its states, notifying them of the start of each election stage. They shall do the same on the Force Discord Server.
3.3. If the Speaker is unable to perform these duties, the responsibility of doing so shall fall to the Deputy Speaker. If for whatever reason, the Deputy Speaker is unable to fulfill these duties either, the Chief Justice shall be endowed with these responsibilities.
4. General Elections
4.1. These shall be held to elect the Prime Minister, all seats in the House of Representatives except for those from the capital territory, and all Court Justices. 
4.2. They shall begin on the first of March, July, and November.
4.3. Elections for Prime Minister shall follow ranked choice voting procedures.
5. Midterm Elections
5.1. These shall be held to elect the capital territory’s seats in the House of Representatives and all Court Justices.
5.2. They shall begin on the first of January, May, and September.
6. No emergency election for a vacant office shall conflict with a regularly scheduled election for that same office.

[Edited to comply with HB28 clause 3]

10
Foreign Affairs / Consulate Applications
« on: May 14, 2020, 03:41:35 pm »
Consulate Applications



Information

Consulates are a way for regions who do not meet our embassy requirements to form diplomatic relations with us. If your application is accepted, we will establish a special thread on these forums for you to post regional updates. If this posting is consistent and high quality over a period of time (to be determined at the discretion of the Ministry), we will be willing to make a special exception to embassy requirements for your region, allowing us to form in-game embassies. Thus, having a consulate and using it properly is a way for small regions to form embassies with us, where they otherwise would not be able to.

Application Form

If you would like to form a consulate, please reply to this thread using the following application form:

Region:
Your Nation in the Region:
Your Position in the Region:
Are you willing to send updates at least once monthly?:
Brief Description of the Region (type of government, community, etc):


11
Constitutional Amendments / Amendment 18
« on: May 04, 2020, 03:33:57 pm »
Amendment 18: Updates to Article B

Purpose: To better define rights to ensure that they are adequately protected while still ensuring that moderation can take place without violating any of these tenets.

Existing Section, Article B: Rights of Citizenship

1. The right to freedom of speech.
1.1. This right shall not allow citizens to circumvent rules put in place on all offsite venues, as long as these rules are solely for the prevention of spam, flaming, blackmail, or similar.
1.2. Government officials shall be subject to restrictions on this right as it pertains to the release of information which if released, could threaten the safety and security of the Union.
2. The right to a fair trial.
3. The right to protest freely and petition the government for the redress of any grievances.
4. The right to run for public office.
4.1. If a candidate in any election fails to answer all questions asked to them by the Founder or Speaker of the House within the debate period, they shall be disqualified from that election.
5. The right to freedom of the press.
6. The right to freely express and hold one's own political views.
7. No citizen shall have to answer for a crime committed prior to that act being made criminal.

New Section, Article B: Rights of Citizenship

1. The right to freedom of speech and free expression of political views.

1.1. This right shall not allow citizens to circumvent rules put in place on any offsite venue, as long as these rules are solely for the prevention of spam, flaming, impersonation, doxxing, harassment, to comply with a platform’s terms of service, or similar.
1.1.1. Doxxing is defined as publishing private or identifying information about an individual without their consent.
1.1.2. Harassment is defined as repeated or continuing contact serving no useful purpose except to create alarm, annoyance, or cause emotional distress.
1.1.3. Impersonation is defined as deliberately attempting to mislead people to believe that you are a government official or a person who is a candidate for elected office.

1.2. Government officials shall be subject to restrictions on this right as it pertains to the release of information which if released, could threaten the safety and security of the Union.

2. The right to freedom of the press.
3. The right to protest freely and petition the government for the redress of any grievances.
4. The right to a fair trial.
5. The right to run for government office.
5.1. If a candidate in any election fails to answer all questions asked to them by the Founder or Speaker of the House within the debate period, they shall be disqualified from that election.
6. No citizen shall have to answer for a crime committed prior to that act being made criminal.

[Edited to comply with HB28 clause 3]

12
Courtroom / Request for Review: Internal Affairs Directive no. IA-001
« on: April 17, 2020, 08:54:20 pm »
Your Honor, Mr. Chief Justice:

In accordance with §D.6.1 of the Constitution, and your ability of "...clarifying an existing law...", I hereby request that the Court clarify §D.5.1 of the Constitution, as a recent action by a member of government has exposed an issue of ambiguity in the law.

Your Honor, the Minister of Internal Affairs, Caduceo, just passed a directive entitled 'Internal Affairs Directive no. IA-001'. This directive was issued on the basis that §D.5.1 of the Constitution grants individual Ministers the right to create law. However, this has never been done before in the past. Previously, this section of the Constitution was presumed to mean that the Cabinet as a whole had the ability to create law, not individuals within it.

Thus, I would like to ask for the Court's opinion on the matter in order to more clearly define this section of law.

13
Constitutional Amendments / Amendment 14
« on: April 17, 2020, 08:37:33 pm »
Amendment 14: Impeachment & Succession Reform Act

Purpose: To lay out a better defined process for impeachment, to ensure that the reasons for impeachment are fair, to ensure that removal from office makes an office absent, and to reform how succession to the office of Prime Minister occurs.

Existing Article, Article C: The Cabinet

1. The Founder of Force shall be the Union's head of state and the Prime Minister of Force shall be the Union's head of government.

1.1. The Founder shall be responsible for maintaining stability, overseeing the Cabinet, and stepping in to lead the Cabinet should the need arise.
1.2. The Prime Minister shall be responsible for actively leading the Union and Cabinet.

2. The Prime Minister shall appoint the Cabinet and have the power to remove any of its members, except for the Founder. They shall be responsible for, at minimum, appointing Ministers charged with Foreign Affairs, Internal Affairs, Communications, and Culture.

2.1. A Minister shall be responsible for maintaining existing diplomatic relationships and forging new ones, overseeing the signing of treaties, and ensuring The Force Flyer is distributed to all of them.
2.2. A Minister shall be responsible for overseeing domestic matters, ensuring new members of the Union understand how the government works and know about all the opportunities available to them, and working to improve territories.
2.3. A Minister shall be responsible for publishing The Force Flyer on a monthly basis and producing any other official publications and documents.
2.4. A Minister shall be responsible for creating and running events for citizens of the Union to participate in, continuing old and forging new traditions, and recording the history of the Union.
2.5. All members of the Cabinet may appoint Deputies to assist them in their duties. If any Deputy is delegated power or responsibilities through the administration of a formal oath affirming this, they shall be considered a government official.

3. Any military or intelligence forces within the Union shall be considered under the supreme command and authority of the Founder and Prime Minister.

4. The Prime Minister can appoint a Deputy Prime Minister to help oversee the Ministries of Foreign Affairs, Internal Affairs, Communications, and Culture.

4.1. The Prime Minister can dismiss the Deputy Prime Minister at any time for any reason.
4.2. If the Prime Minister is impeached or absent as defined by §G.3, the Deputy Prime Minister shall assume the position of Acting Prime Minister, which shall encompass all the duties and powers of the Prime Minister.
4.3. The Prime Minister is held accountable for the Deputy Prime Minister's actions, and thus the Deputy Prime Minister is expected to be as professional as the Prime Minister.

New Article, Article C: The Cabinet

1. The Founder of Force shall be the Union's head of state and the Prime Minister of Force shall be the Union's head of government.

1.1. The Founder shall be responsible for maintaining stability, overseeing the Cabinet, and stepping in to lead the Cabinet should the need arise.
1.2. The Prime Minister shall be responsible for actively leading the Union and Cabinet.

2. The Prime Minister shall appoint the Cabinet and have the power to remove any of its members, except for the Founder. They shall be responsible for, at minimum, appointing ministers charged with foreign affairs, internal affairs, communications, and culture.

2.1. A minister shall be responsible for maintaining existing diplomatic relationships and forging new ones, overseeing the signing of treaties, and ensuring The Force Flyer is distributed to all of them.
2.2. A minister shall be responsible for overseeing domestic matters, ensuring new members of the Union understand how the government works and know about all the opportunities available to them, and working to improve territories.
2.3. A minister shall be responsible for publishing The Force Flyer on a monthly basis and producing any other official publications and documents.
2.4. A minister shall be responsible for creating and running events for citizens of the Union to participate in, continuing old and forging new traditions, and recording the history of the Union.
2.5. All members of the Cabinet may appoint deputies to assist them in their duties. If any deputy is delegated power or responsibilities through the administration of a formal oath affirming this, they shall be considered a government official.

3. Any military or intelligence forces within the Union shall be considered under the supreme command and authority of the Founder and Prime Minister.

4. The Prime Minister can appoint a Deputy Prime Minister to help oversee the ministries responsible for foreign affairs, internal affairs, communications, and culture.

4.1. The Prime Minister can dismiss the Deputy Prime Minister at any time for any reason.
4.2. The Prime Minister is held accountable for the Deputy Prime Minister's actions, and thus the Deputy Prime Minister is expected to be as professional as the Prime Minister.

Existing Article, Article E: The House of Representatives

1. The House shall consist of Representatives from each region in the Union, proportional to the total number of World Assembly members in each region.

2. The total number of seats in the House of Representatives shall be decided at the start of every House election. Each region will be able to elect one Representative for every 5 World Assembly nations they have. If a region does not fill all of its seats in an election, the vacant seats will not be considered absent and thus, not subject to Article G of this Constitution.

3. The House shall hold the power to pass and repeal laws.

4. The House may pass or repeal any of its laws with a simple majority vote by its members in favor of the change.

5. The House may override an Executive Order from the Prime Minister with a 2/3 majority vote by its members in favor of the change.

6. The House may remove the following types of government officials for failing to perform their responsibilities, serious misconduct, or in response to majority support among citizens for impeachment.

6.1. The Prime Minister may be removed with a 2/3 majority vote of the House.
6.2. A Justice may be removed with a 2/3 majority vote of the House.
6.3. Any other government official, with the exception of the Founder, Cabinet Ministers, and House Representatives, may be removed with a simple majority vote of the House.

7. Any member of the House may propose an amendment to this Constitution. Once every member of the House has had the chance to review the Amendment, the Amendment may be seconded and subsequently, sent to vote. If the House votes in favor of it, with a simple majority, it will then be sent to the citizens for a vote, lasting 4 days. If the citizens approve of the amendment with a 2/3 majority, the amendment will be sent to the Founder for approval.

7.1. If the Founder signs the amendment, the Constitution shall be amended and the amendment shall become law. In signing it, the Founder may fix any spelling errors in the passed amendment and that fixed version shall become law.
7.2. If the Founder vetoes it, providing reasoning for their veto, it shall not become law, with no option to override the veto.

New Article, Article E: The House of Representatives

1. The House shall consist of Representatives from each region in the Union, proportional to the total number of World Assembly members in each region.

2. The total number of seats in the House of Representatives shall be decided at the start of every House election. Each region will be able to elect one Representative for every 5 World Assembly nations they have. If a region does not fill all of its seats in an election, the vacant seats will not be considered absent and thus, not subject to Article G of this Constitution.

3. The House shall hold the power to pass and repeal laws.

4. The House may pass or repeal any of its laws with a simple majority vote by its members in favor of the change.

5. The House may override an Executive Order from the Prime Minister with a 2/3 majority vote by its members in favor of the change.

6. The House may hold impeachment proceedings against any government official, except House Representatives, Cabinet Ministers, and the Founder.

6.1. Any House member may initiate impeachment proceedings by writing articles of impeachment specifying the official to be impeached and the reasons for why they are being impeached. If these articles are seconded by another House Representative, they must be put to vote.

6.1.1. The Prime Minister and Justices shall require a 2/3 majority vote of the House to be impeached.
6.1.2. All other government officials, besides those excluded from impeachment in §E.6, shall require a simple majority vote to be impeached.

6.2. If the House passes articles of impeachment against any official other than a justice, those Articles of Impeachment shall go to the Justices for a vote on whether the reasons within those articles warrant removal from office. If the Justices vote with a simple majority in favor of removal, the official shall be removed from office.

6.2.1. In considering whether or not the articles warrant removal from office, the Justices must consider all factors: the specific circumstances, the opinion of the public on whether that official should be removed, and any other factors brought up in or related to the Articles of Impeachment. If the impeachment was for reasons other than breaking the law, the Justices must only consider those factors and not whether a law was broken, in choosing whether the official should be removed. Once they have come to a decision, the Chief Justice must write a detailed explanation of why they believe the official should or should not be removed from office.

6.3. If the House passes articles of impeachment against a justice, then those Articles of Impeachment shall go to the citizens for a vote on whether the reasons within those articles warrant removal from office. If the citizens vote with a simple majority in favor of removal, the Justice shall be removed from office.

7. Any member of the House may propose an amendment to this Constitution. Once every member of the House has had the chance to review the Amendment, the Amendment may be seconded and subsequently, sent to vote. If the House votes in favor of it, with a simple majority, it will then be sent to the citizens for a vote, lasting 4 days. If the citizens approve of the amendment with a 2/3 majority, the amendment will be sent to the Founder for approval.

7.1. If the Founder signs the amendment, the Constitution shall be amended and the amendment shall become law. In signing it, the Founder may fix any spelling errors in the passed amendment and that fixed version shall become law.
7.2. If the Founder vetoes it, providing reasoning for their veto, it shall not become law, with no option to override the veto.

Existing Article, Article G: Absences

1. In the case of an absence of the Prime Minister, a House Representative, or a member of the Court, an emergency election must be held if the next election for that position is more than one month away. Otherwise the Founder must appoint a replacement within 3 days.

2. In the case of an absence in the Cabinet, the Prime Minister must appoint a replacement within 7 days.

3. An absence is defined as an event in which the government official in question has not spoken or actively performed their duties on the NationStates website, Force forums, or Force Discord server in at least 1 week or where that official has resigned from office.

4. If a government official anticipates an absence this long, in order to keep their job, prior to the absence they must provide reasonable cause for it and designate another official in their area of government to take on their responsibilities. This shall not apply to the House of Representatives, who is subject to clause 3, regardless of the circumstances.

New Article, Article G: Absences and Succession

1. A government office is considered absent when:

1.1. The office holder has lost citizenship.
1.2. The office holder has not spoken or performed their duties on the NationStates website, Force forums, or Force Discord server in at least 1 week.

1.2.1. If a government official anticipates an absence this long, in order to keep their position, prior to the absence they must provide reasonable cause for it and designate another official in their area of government to take on their responsibilities. This shall not apply to the House of Representatives or Court, who are subject to §G.2, regardless of the circumstances.

1.3. The office holder has resigned.
1.4. The office holder has been removed from office.

2. In the case of an absence in the office of Prime Minister, the Deputy Prime Minister shall assume the position of Prime Minister. If there is no Deputy Prime Minister, or the Deputy Prime Minister chooses to not take the office, the Speaker of the House will become Prime Minister.

2.1. In the case of there being no Speaker of the House or them choosing not to take the office, the matter shall go to the House, who shall be responsible for choosing a new Prime Minister.
2.2. Any House Representative may nominate a member of the Cabinet or House for Prime Minister, provided that the nominee has agreed to their nomination. Both the nominations period and the subsequent vote shall last for 24 hours. The nominee with a majority of the vote shall become Prime Minister.

2.2.1. If no nominee receives a majority of the vote, a second vote shall be held in which only the two nominees with the highest vote totals remain. The nominee who receives a majority of the vote after 24 hours shall become Prime Minister.

2.3. If no nominations are made, an emergency election, following the same rules as a regular election, must be held.

3. In the case of an absence of a House Representative or a member of the Court, an emergency election, following the same rules as a regular election, must be held if the next election for that position is more than one month away. Otherwise the Founder must appoint a replacement within 5 days.

4. In the case of an absence in the Cabinet, the Prime Minister must appoint a replacement within 7 days.


[Edited to comply with HB28 clause 3]

14
Constitutional Amendments / Amendment 12
« on: March 06, 2020, 09:21:36 pm »
Amendment 12: Court Reform Act

Purpose: To change how the Court functions in such a way so that proceedings happen in a clear, fair, and straightforward manner.

Existing Article, Article E: The House of Representatives

1. The House shall consist of Representatives from each region in the Union, proportional to the total number of World Assembly members in each region.
2. The total number of seats in the House of Representatives shall be decided at the start of every House election. Each region will be able to elect one Representative for every 5 World Assembly nations they have. If a region does not fill all of its seats in an election, the vacant seats will not be considered absent and thus, not subject to Article G of this Constitution.
3. The House shall hold the power to pass and repeal laws.
4. The House may pass or repeal any of its laws with a simple majority vote by its members in favor of the change.
5. The House may override an Executive Order from the Prime Minister with a 2/3 majority vote by its members in favor of the change.
6. The House may remove the following types of government officials for failing to perform their responsibilities, serious misconduct, or in response to majority support among citizens for impeachment.
6.1. The Prime Minister may be removed with a 2/3 majority vote of the House.
6.2. The Prosecutor may be removed with a 2/3 majority vote of the House.
6.3. The Judge may be removed with a 2/3 majority vote of the House.
6.4. Any other government official, with the exception of the Founder, Cabinet Ministers, and House Representatives, may be removed with a simple majority vote of the House.
7. Any member of the House may propose an amendment to this Constitution. Once every member of the House has had the chance to review the Amendment, the Amendment may be seconded and subsequently, sent to vote. If the House votes in favor of it, with a simple majority, it will then be sent to the citizens for a vote, lasting 4 days. If the citizens approve of the amendment with a 2/3 majority, the amendment will be sent to the Founder for approval.
7.1. If the Founder signs the amendment, the Constitution shall be amended and the amendment shall become law. In signing it, the Founder may fix any spelling errors in the passed amendment and that fixed version shall become law.
7.2. If the Founder vetoes it, providing reasoning for their veto, it shall not become law, with no option to override the veto.

New Article, Article E: The House of Representatives

1. The House shall consist of Representatives from each region in the Union, proportional to the total number of World Assembly members in each region.
2. The total number of seats in the House of Representatives shall be decided at the start of every House election. Each region will be able to elect one Representative for every 5 World Assembly nations they have. If a region does not fill all of its seats in an election, the vacant seats will not be considered absent and thus, not subject to Article G of this Constitution.
3. The House shall hold the power to pass and repeal laws.
4. The House may pass or repeal any of its laws with a simple majority vote by its members in favor of the change.
5. The House may override an Executive Order from the Prime Minister with a 2/3 majority vote by its members in favor of the change.
6. The House may remove the following types of government officials for failing to perform their responsibilities, serious misconduct, or in response to majority support among citizens for impeachment.
6.1. The Prime Minister may be removed with a 2/3 majority vote of the House.
6.2. A Justice may be removed with a 2/3 majority vote of the House.
6.3. Any other government official, with the exception of the Founder, Cabinet Ministers, and House Representatives, may be removed with a simple majority vote of the House.
7. Any member of the House may propose an amendment to this Constitution. Once every member of the House has had the chance to review the Amendment, the Amendment may be seconded and subsequently, sent to vote. If the House votes in favor of it, with a simple majority, it will then be sent to the citizens for a vote, lasting 4 days. If the citizens approve of the amendment with a 2/3 majority, the amendment will be sent to the Founder for approval.
7.1. If the Founder signs the amendment, the Constitution shall be amended and the amendment shall become law. In signing it, the Founder may fix any spelling errors in the passed amendment and that fixed version shall become law.
7.2. If the Founder vetoes it, providing reasoning for their veto, it shall not become law, with no option to override the veto.

Existing Article, Article F: The Court

1. The Court shall consist of the Judge and the Prosecutor.
1.1. The Prosecutor shall hold the responsibility deciding if enough evidence has been presented to warrant a trial. Once they have made a decision, a Jury will be selected. The Prosecutor shall have the power to draft charges against a Force Citizen in the event of any misconduct.
1.2. The Judge shall hold the responsibility of handing out a punishment if the defendant is found guilty. The Judge shall also be responsible for deciding whether any laws are illegal and suspending these laws if they are, whilst providing sufficient reason for why they are illegal.
1.2.1 The punishment must be fair and appropriate for the crime committed unless outlined in Article J.
2. A maximum of two Court Cases may be heard at one time, based upon the seriousness of the accusations. A queue will be created if more than two cases is pending.
3. The defendant shall be required to enter a plea of guilty, not guilty, or no contest.
3.1. A plea of guilty will skip the jury trial and move directly to sentencing.
3.2. A plea of not guilty will move forward with a jury trial.
3.3. A plea of no contest means that you do not admit guilt or innocence. The case will move before a judge for sentencing.
4. Each case which a plea of not guilty was entered into the record shall be heard by a jury of 3 citizens selected at random. The following are prohibited from serving on a jury: the defendant, the plaintiff, any citizen currently on trial or that has charges pending, any close personal friends, or any citizen which has served on a jury in the past 3 months.
5. The Prime Minister may issue a pardon to anyone convicted of a crime, provided that the person is not themselves or a close friend of theirs. They may only issue a pardon twice a term.
6. Any citizen convicted of a crime may petition the court for a new trial based on new evidence.
6.1. On appeal, the Founder will appoint a special judge to oversee the trial.
6.2. No jury member who served in the original trial will be allowed to participate in the new trial.

New Article, Article F: The Court

1. The Court shall consist of three justices.

2. At the beginning of each elected term, the Justices shall elect from among themselves a Chief Justice, who shall be responsible for ensuring that all responsibilities of the Court are upheld.

3. Any citizen may bring a case before the Court. The Justices collectively shall hold the responsibility of deciding whether or not to hear the case. They may only deny a case if it accuses the defendant of an action which is not illegal under any law or statute which applies to them in the Union or which has been found legal by precedent of another case that, except for those involved, was identical.

3.1. If a case brought to the Court indicts a justice, that justice must recuse themselves from involvement in all stages of that case. The Founder must appoint a special justice to temporarily fulfill their role for that case.
4. If the case shall be heard, the defendant is required to enter a plea of guilt, innocence, or no contest within a week of the case’s acceptance.
4.1. A plea of guilt will skip a trial and move directly to sentencing.
4.2. A plea of innocence shall move forward with a trial.
4.3. A plea of no contest means that you do not admit guilt or innocence. The case will move before the justices for sentencing.
5. Each case in which a plea of not guilty was entered into the record shall be heard by a jury of 3 citizens selected at random by the Justices. The following are prohibited from serving on a jury: the defendant, the plaintiff, any citizen currently on trial or that has charges pending, any close personal friends, or any citizen who has served on a jury in the past 3 months.
6. A maximum of two court cases may be heard at one time, based upon the seriousness of the accusation(s). A queue shall be created if more than two cases are pending.
7. The Chief Justice shall oversee all trials. Each trial shall consist of three stages: opening statements, witness testimony and/or the presentation of evidence, and closing arguments. The trial must be accessible for viewership by all citizens.
7.1. Opening statements shall consist of statements by both the plaintiff and the defendant presenting their respective arguments and an overview, from their perspectives, of the case at hand.
7.2. Witness testimony shall consist of bringing in outside individuals with firsthand knowledge of the alleged wrongdoing or lack thereof to testify. The presentation of evidence shall consist of the presentation of evidence to justify or refute the case at hand. Both the plaintiff and the defendant may choose to bring people or evidence forth for this stage.
7.3. Closing arguments shall consist of arguments by both the plaintiff and the defendant to reiterate their arguments. This may include refuting the testimony of witnesses or evidence from the previous stage. The defendant shall be entitled to deliver the last closing argument. Once closing arguments have concluded, the case shall move to the jury for deliberation.
8. The Jury shall have 3 days to determine, with a simple majority, whether the defendant is guilty or innocent. If they are considering voting guilty, a jury member must ensure that they have no reasonable doubt about that guilt before voting. Alongside their vote, they must provide fair reasoning for their decision.
9. The Justices collectively shall hold the responsibility of handing out a punishment to a defendant if they are found guilty or plead no contest.
9.1. Unanimous consensus among the justices (not including a recused justice, if there is one) shall be required to select a punishment for the guilty party. The Chief Justice must ensure consensus is reached on an appropriate punishment within 3 days of the guilty verdict. If a unanimous consensus cannot be reached after 3 days, a majority in favor shall suffice.
9.2. The punishment must be fair and appropriate for the crime committed, as outlined in Article J.
10. Any person convicted of a crime may petition the Court for a new trial based on new evidence.
10.1. On appeal, the Founder will appoint a special team of 3 justices to oversee the trial. This special team shall operate under the normal rules for a trial.
10.2. No jury member who served in the original trial shall be allowed to participate in a new trial.
11. The Justices shall hold the authority to judge whether each law passed within the Union is constitutional or not. If not, they must suspend that law, in its entirety, providing a comprehensive legal argument to explain the reasons for its unconstitutionality.
11.1. A simple majority among the justices shall be required to find a law unconstitutional.
12. The Prime Minister may issue a pardon to anyone convicted of a crime, effectively canceling that person’s sentence, provided that the person is not themselves, a close friend of theirs, or an associate in government. They may only issue a pardon once per term.

Existing Article, Article H: Elections

1. Election Procedures
1.1. The election shall begin with candidacy declarations, which shall be open for 3 days.
1.2. Following this, a debate, open to questions by all citizens, shall be held for 3 days.
1.3. The last stage shall be voting, which shall be held for 4 days.
1.4. If an election ends with no candidate achieving a majority, voting shall continue until one does. If that election has only one candidate, a fresh election shall be held.
1.5. All stages of elections for Prime Minister, House of Representatives, and Court shall be started by and overseen by the Speaker of the House of Representatives.
1.5.1. The Speaker shall be responsible for sending a telegram to all citizens of the Union's capital region and is urged to send one to each of its states, notifying them of the start of each election stage. They shall do the same on the Force Discord Server. This, however, is optional.
1.5.2. If the Speaker is not able to perform these duties, the responsibility of doing so shall fall to the Deputy Speaker. If for whatever reason, the Deputy Speaker is unable to fulfill these duties either, the Prosecutor shall be endowed with these responsibilities.
1.6. All elections must begin between (including) the times of 00:00 and 23:59 on the legally defined date.
1.6.1. Following the completion of one stage in an election, the next stage shall begin within 12 hours.
2. Prime Minister Elections
2.1. Elections shall start on the first of January, April, July, and October.
2.2. If there are more than two candidates, voters may rank their preferred candidates. Their favorite candidate shall be ranked 1, their second favorite 2, and so on as far as they wish to do rankings.
2.3. The candidate with the majority of votes shall be elected. Abstentions shall not be considered.
2.3.1. If no candidate achieves a majority, an instant runoff shall be triggered. The second preference of those who voted for a candidate other than the two with the most votes shall be counted and so on until a candidate has a majority of votes.
2.3.2. If all of a voter's preferences have been counted, their ballot shall not be used in further counting.
3. House Elections
3.1. Elections shall start on the first of January, April, July, and October.
3.2. Force and each of its territories with at least 5 World Assembly nations shall hold House Elections.
3.3. Each territory shall elect the candidates with the most votes to the seats available for that territory as indicated in §E.2.
4. Court Elections
4.1. The Prosecutor and the Judge shall be elected.
4.2. Elections shall start on the first of June and December.

New Article, Article H: Elections

1. Election Procedures
1.1. The election shall begin with candidacy declarations, which shall be open for 3 days.
1.2. Following this, a debate, open to questions by all citizens, shall be held for 3 days.
1.3. The last stage shall be voting, which shall be held for 4 days.
1.4. If an election ends with no candidate achieving a majority, voting shall continue until one does. If that election has only one candidate, a fresh election shall be held.
1.5. All stages of elections for Prime Minister, House of Representatives, and Court shall be started by and overseen by the Speaker of the House of Representatives.
1.5.1. The Speaker shall be responsible for sending a telegram to all citizens of the Union's capital region and is urged to send one to each of its states, notifying them of the start of each election stage. They shall do the same on the Force Discord Server. This, however, is optional.
1.5.2. If the Speaker is not able to perform these duties, the responsibility of doing so shall fall to the Deputy Speaker. If for whatever reason, the Deputy Speaker is unable to fulfill these duties either, the Chief Justice shall be endowed with these responsibilities.
1.6. Following the completion of one stage in an election, the next stage shall begin within 12 hours.
2. Prime Minister Elections
2.1. Elections shall start on the first of January, April, July, and October.
2.2. If there are more than two candidates, voters may rank their preferred candidates. Their favorite candidate shall be ranked 1, their second favorite 2, and so on as far as they wish to do rankings.
2.3. The candidate with the majority of votes shall be elected. Abstentions shall not be considered.
2.3.1. If no candidate achieves a majority, an instant runoff shall be triggered. The second preference of those who voted for a candidate other than the two with the most votes shall be counted and so on until a candidate has a majority of votes.
2.3.2. If all of a voter's preferences have been counted, their ballot shall not be used in further counting.
3. House Elections
3.1. Elections shall start on the first of January, April, July, and October.
3.2. Force and each of its territories with at least 5 World Assembly nations shall hold House Elections.
3.3. Each territory shall elect the candidates with the most votes to the seats available for that territory as indicated in §E.2.
4. Court Elections
4.1. The three Justices shall be elected.
4.2. Elections shall start on the first of March, June, September, and December.

15
Citizen Proposals / [WITHDRAWN] Amendment 12
« on: February 20, 2020, 07:49:18 pm »
Amendment 12: The Citizens’ Act

Purpose: An act to delegate the power to remove government officials to the citizens.

Existing Article, Article A: Citizenship

1. All nations in the Union are citizens.
2. Citizenship shall entitle nations to the rights outlined in Article B.
3. Citizenship may only be removed by the Court as a punishment following a criminal trial. Rights of Citizenship may be removed by the Court for the same reason, but only temporarily.
4. Citizenship shall only remain valid as long as the citizen's nation remains in the Union.
5. Citizens shall hold the sole power to remove a Representative and shall do so by holding a democratic vote in which a simple majority is required to remove them. A public hearing must be held prior to the vote.

New Article, Article A: The Citizens

1. All nations in the Union are citizens.
2. Citizenship shall entitle nations to rights, as outlined in Article B.
3. Citizenship may only be removed by the Court as a punishment following a criminal trial. Rights of Citizenship may be removed by the Court for the same reason, but only temporarily.
4. Citizenship shall only remain valid so long as the citizen's nation remains in the Union.
5. The power to remove government officials from office shall rest solely with the citizens.

5.1. A vote to remove a government official from office shall require turnout equivalent to at least 1/5 of the number of Union World Assembly Members at the time voting begins.
5.2. A vote to remove a government official from office shall last 4 days.
5.3. In order to remove the Prime Minister, Prosecutor, or Judge, a 2/3 majority in favor shall be required.
5.4. In order to remove any other government official from office, except for the Founder and members of the Cabinet, a simple majority in favor shall be required.

Existing Article, Article E: The House of Representatives

1. The House shall consist of Representatives from each region in the Union, proportional to the total number of World Assembly members in each region.
2. The total number of seats in the House of Representatives shall be decided at the start of every House election. Each region will be able to elect one Representative for every 5 World Assembly nations they have. If a region does not fill all of its seats in an election, the vacant seats will not be considered absent and thus, not subject to Article G of this Constitution.
3. The House shall hold the power to pass and repeal laws.
4. The House may pass or repeal any of its laws with a simple majority vote by its members in favor of the change.
5. The House may override an Executive Order from the Prime Minister with a 2/3 majority vote by its members in favor of the change.
6. The House may remove the following types of government officials for failing to perform their responsibilities, serious misconduct, or in response to majority support among citizens for impeachment.

6.1. The Prime Minister may be removed with a 2/3 majority vote of the House.
6.2. The Prosecutor may be removed with a 2/3 majority vote of the House.
6.3. The Judge may be removed with a 2/3 majority vote of the House.
6.4. Any other government official, with the exception of the Founder, Cabinet Ministers, and House Representatives, may be removed with a simple majority vote of the House.

7. Any member of the House may propose an amendment to this Constitution. Once every member of the House has had the chance to review the Amendment, the Amendment may be seconded and subsequently, sent to vote. If the House votes in favor of it, with a simple majority, it will then be sent to the citizens for a vote, lasting 4 days. If the citizens approve of the amendment with a 2/3 majority, the amendment will be sent to the Founder for approval.

7.1. If the Founder signs the amendment, the Constitution shall be amended and the amendment shall become law. In signing it, the Founder may fix any spelling errors in the passed amendment and that fixed version shall become law.
7.2. If the Founder vetoes it, providing reasoning for their veto, it shall not become law, with no option to override the veto.

New Article, Article E: The House of Representatives

1. The House shall consist of Representatives from each region in the Union, proportional to the total number of World Assembly members in each region.
2. The total number of seats in the House of Representatives shall be decided at the start of every House election. Each region will be able to elect one Representative for every 5 World Assembly nations they have. If a region does not fill all of its seats in an election, the vacant seats will not be considered absent and thus, not subject to Article G of this Constitution.
3. The House shall hold the power to pass and repeal laws.
4. The House may pass or repeal any of its laws with a simple majority vote by its members in favor of the change.
5. The House may override an Executive Order from the Prime Minister with a 2/3 majority vote by its members in favor of the change.
6. Any member of the House may propose an amendment to this Constitution. Once every member of the House has had the chance to review the Amendment, the Amendment may be seconded and subsequently, sent to vote. If the House votes in favor of it, with a simple majority, it will then be sent to the citizens for a vote, lasting 4 days. If the citizens approve of the amendment with a 2/3 majority, the amendment will be sent to the Founder for approval.

6.1. If the Founder signs the amendment, the Constitution shall be amended and the amendment shall become law. In signing it, the Founder may fix any spelling errors in the passed amendment and that fixed version shall become law.
6.2. If the Founder vetoes it, providing reasoning for their veto, it shall not become law, with no option to override the veto.


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